Presentation on theme: "Cry, the Beloved Country by Alan Paton. What I Know About South Africa Pre-write anything that you know about South Africa. We will later explore some."— Presentation transcript:
What I Know About South Africa Pre-write anything that you know about South Africa. We will later explore some of the features of South Africa as they relate to Paton's work and as they give a context for contemporary South Africa.
Alan Paton - Born on January 11, 1903, on the east coast of southern Africa (formerly Natal) to evangelical Christians - South Africa did not yet exist; it was established in 1910 following the Anglo- Boer War.
Johannesburg In 1886, gold mines were discovered and gave rise to the creation of this city. The setting for Cry, The Beloved Country, it provides a realistic stage for the unfortunate racially based tension that mounted at the end of World War II due to the increasing number of people moving to Johannesburg from nearby outlying rural areas in Africa.
Johannesburg, a major setting in Cry, the Beloved Country Current Population: 1,675,200
English vs. Afrikaner vs. Zulu The tension between British imperialists and the Afrikaans, or white South African inhabitants descendant of the Boers, pales in comparison to the struggles between the Afrikaans and native black Africans. The respective languages of these two groups, Afrikaner and Zulu represent a pronounced difference in culture and perspective.
Jan Hofmeyr Hofmeyr helped Paton to make possible the Diepkloof Reformatory, an institution that approached the issue of juvenile delinquency in terms of education rather than imprisonment.
Cry, the Beloved Country Published in February 1948 in New York, Paton's masterpiece has been translated into some twenty different languages since. The work captures the ethnic, political, and spiritual essence of the setting in which it is based. It also brings to surface universal considerations, such as love, retribution, and justice.
Cry, the Beloved Country The London publication of this work included the subtitle, “A Story of Comfort in Desolation,” which makes reference to the underlying tone of hope in the midst of desperate events of which the main character becomes aware throughout the work.
02/16/08 History of South Africa. 1487: Bartholomeu Dias (Portuguese) reaches Cape of Good Hope 1652: Dutch and French settlers create a colony for East India Co. 1700s: Dutch colonize and Christianize South Africa 1806-1820s: British take control and settle Dutch colony 1833: Slavery abolished in British Empire 1834: Dutch war with Kaffirs 1838: Dutch conquer Zulus, take Zululand (Natal) 1852: South African Republic (Transvaal) founded by Boers (Dutch farmers) 1877: British Empire takes control of all Dutch colonies. 1885: Gold discovered 1899-1902: British war with Boers: Brits win. 1910: Union of South Africa becomes a Dominion in British Commonwealth 1931: Becomes independent 1948: Nationalist Party takes power, institutes apartheid 1961: Becomes a Republic
02/16/08 I. Novel Structure A. Character 1. Stephen Kumalo--Father/father 2. James Jarvis: father 3. Msimangu: Father 4. Absalom--son 5. Arthur--son
02/16/08 B. Setting 1. Ndotsheni--Stephen’s home--old ways 2. Johannesburg--new place
02/16/08 C. Plot 1. Book I a. The “sorrows” of the Kumalos b. Journey to Johannesburg (literal and figurative) c. Murder of Arthur 2. Book II a. The “sorrows” of the Jarvis’s b. Trial c. Kumalos/Jarvis’s meet
02/16/08 3. Book III a. Return home b. Darkness and dawn c. The secret
02/16/08 4. Chapters of commentary: 1, 3, 9, 12, 18, 23, 26, 28, 35 5. Chapters of narrative: All others
02/16/08 D. Themes 1. Love of fellow man = solution to disintegration of culture 2. Family (fathers/sons, mothers, brothers) 3. Obsession with wealth v. spiritual wealth 4. Journey (metaphorical)
02/16/08 II. The title of the novel A. References to crying in the novel: The crying of the titihoya Cry for the broken tribe, for the law and the custom that is gone. Cry, the beloved country, for the unborn child that is the inheritor of our fear.
02/16/08 B. Africa as the beloved country: It is Africa, the beloved country. Yes, God save Africa, the beloved country. C. Grammatical interpretations: The country itself cries (because it is disintegrating). (You) cry for the country, which is disintegrating
02/16/08 III. Literary A. Motifs: recurring images associated with theme 1. travel 2. clothing 3. farm/land 4. Letters/mail 5. Money 6. Home 7. Mines/resources 8. Titihoya (bird) 9. Meals/food/communion 10. Secrets
02/16/08 B. Character names 1. Absalom: King David’s favorite but rebellious son (II Samuel 18:33) 2. Arthur: King Arthur, “Father” of GB 3. Gertrude: Adulterous mother in Hamlet 4. Theophilus (Msimangu): “lover of God”
Preconceived Concept Associations For the following terms, write a two- sentence response to what each means to you. Avoid clichés. Justice Prejudice Love Family Progress Home
Title Inference Looking only at the title, Cry, the Beloved Country, write what you might assume is a central theme to the novel. Consider questions like the following: Is “Cry” the name of the country? Is there irony in the title? Is this an imperative statement? Is “beloved” being used in the present or past tense?
The Work's Acclaim Cry, the Beloved Country is noted for its ability to make others aware of South Africa and the ills of apartheid. Paton provides a combination of despair and hope that helps to enlighten the reader who is ignorant to the unjust events that occur in this part of the world that is often unrevealed to Americans.
South Africa's Acclaim South Africa's President Kgalema Motlanthe Population: 43,997,828 Total Area: 471,008 sq mi Today, eleven languages are recognized as the official language. IsiZulu 23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%, Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, other 7.2% (2001)
South Africa during Paton's Life 1910 - Formation of Union of South Africa by former British colonies of the Cape and Natal, and the Boer republics of Transvaal, and Orange Free State. 1912 - Native National Congress founded, later renamed the African National Congress (ANC). 1913 - Land Act introduced to prevent blacks, except those living in Cape Province, from buying land outside reserves.
South Africa during Paton's Life 1914 - National Party founded. 1918 - Secret Broederbond (brotherhood) established to advance the Afrikaner cause. 1919 - South West Africa (Namibia) comes under South African administration. Apartheid set in law
South Africa during Paton's Life 1948 - Policy of apartheid (separateness) adopted when National Party (NP) takes power. 1950 - Population classified by race. Group Areas Act passed to segregate blacks and whites. Communist Party banned. ANC responds with campaign of civil disobedience, led by Nelson Mandela. 1960 - Seventy black demonstrators killed at Sharpeville. ANC banned.
South Africa during Paton's Life 1961 - South Africa declared a republic, leaves the Commonwealth. Mandela heads ANC's new military wing, which launches sabotage campaign. 1960s - International pressure against government begins, South Africa excluded from Olympic Games.
South Africa during Paton's Life 1964 - ANC leader Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment. 1966 September - Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd assassinated. 1970s - More than 3 million people forcibly resettled in black 'homelands'. 1976 - More than 600 killed in clashes between black protesters and security forces during uprising which starts in Soweto.
South Africa during Paton's Life 1984-89 - Township revolt, state of emergency. 1989 - FW de Klerk replaces PW Botha as president, meets Mandela. Public facilities desegregated. Many ANC activists freed. 1990 - ANC unbanned, Mandela released after 27 years in prison. Namibia becomes independent. 1991 - Start of multi-party talks. De Klerk repeals remaining apartheid laws, international sanctions lifted. Major fighting between ANC and Zulu Inkatha movement.
Works Cited http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107983.html http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1069402.stm