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Enlightenment: Philosophy

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1 Enlightenment: Philosophy
By: Yasmine Kerkiz and Nada Aljamal

2 The Enlightenment The Enlightenment is an 18th century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievements of the Scientific Revolution (a period of when new ideas in the sciences were developed). Common words used in the Enlightenment: reason, natural law, hope, progress. (2)

3 Path to the Enlightenment
Isaac Newton and John Locke: especially influenced the Enlightenment. Isaac Newton: messed around with the physical world; was the basic block of enlightenment John Locke: Essay Concerning Human Understanding Locke argued that every person was born with a blank mind. Locke’s ideas suggested that people’s personalities were molded by the experiences and their environment. (1) (2)

4 Introduction to Philosophies
Philosophe: are philosophers, writers, professors, journalists, economists, and social reformers. A philosophe is one who “applies himself to the study of society with the purpose of making his kind better and happier”. Top 3 French Philosophes: Montesquieu Voltaire Diderot (1)

5 Montesquieu He was a French social commentator and political thinker
He wrote: The Spirit of the Laws Focused on the philosophies of governments. Montesquieu believed that the 3 types of governments are: Republics (suitable for small states) Despotism (appropriate for large states) Monarchies (ideal for moderate-size states) Believed that monarchies function through a separation of powers (1)

6 Voltaire Greatest figure of the Enlightenment
Well known for his criticism on Christianity and his strong belief in religious toleration. Treatise on Toleration: reminded governments that “all men are brothers under God”. Championed deism: the universe is like a clock; God (clockmaker) created it, set it in motion, and allowed to run without His interference, according to its own natural laws. (1)

7 Diderot Encyclopedia, or Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades: wanted to “change the general way of thinking”. Became major part of the philosophes’ crusade against old French society because it attacked religious superstition and supported religious toleration. (1)

8 Toward a new social science: Economy
Physiocrats and Adam Smith: viewed as the founders of the modern social science of economics. Physiocrats: if individuals were free to pursue their own economic self-interest, all society would ultimately benefit. Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations (2)

9 Adam Smith Smith’s roles of the government:
Protecting society from invasion (the army) Defending citizens from injustice (the police) Keeping up certain public works, such as roads and canals. (1)

10 Toward a new social science: Beccaria and Justice
Punishments were cruel and extreme. Beccaria: On Crimes and Punishments Opposed capital punishment and punishment brutality “Is it not absurd, that the laws, which punish murder, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves?” (3)

11 The Later Enlightenment
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind Argued that people had adopted laws and government in order to preserve their private property; they had become enslaved by government. The Social Contract: presented concept of the social contract IMPORTANT: ROUSSEAU THOUGHT THAT EMOTIONS WERE IMPORTANT TO THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. MANY PHILOSOPHES THOUGHT JUST THE OPPOSITE! (2)

12 Rights of Women  Female thinkers began to express their
ideas about improving the condition of women. Mary Wollstonecraft: Many see her as the founder of Modern European and American movement for women’s rights. A Vindication of the Rights of Women: Noted that the same people who argued that women must obey men also said that government based on the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects was wrong; (pointed out that the power of men over women was equally wrong). (3)

13 Social World of the Enlightenment
The common people were mostly unaware and barely affected by the Enlightenment. Reading grew with the public of the middle classes. Salons brought writers and artists together with aristocrats, government officials, and wealthy middle-class people together to discuss the new ideas of the philosophes. (3)

14 Religion in the Enlightenment
Many philosophes attacked the Christian church while some tried to find a way to have a deeper connection with God. Methodism: founded by John Wesley, helping people experience salvation under God’s grace (3)

15 The Impact of the Enlightenment

16 Vocabulary Rococo: an artistic style that replaced baroque in the 1730’s; it was highly secular, emphasizing grace, charm, and gentle action. Enlightened Absolutism: a system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers. (3)

17 The Arts Architecture and Art:
Palaces emphasized unique architectural styles created during the Enlightenment, such as rococo. Rococo was also used in paintings to show pleasure, love, and life with an underlying sadness. (4)


19 The Arts Music: Bach: German composer; used Baroque musical style
Handel: German who is mostly known for his religious music; used Baroque musical style. Haydn: musical director for Hungarian princes, but developed his greatest works for the public. Mozart: known as one of the greatest composers (4)


21 The Arts Literature: Middle class readers began to grow while reading novels. Henry Fielding: wrote novels about people without morals who survive by their wits. (4)

22 Enlightenment and Enlightened Absolutism:
Philosophes believed in natural rights for all people: Equality before the law Freedom of religious worship Freedom of press Freedom of speech Right to assemble, hold property, and pursue happiness Philosophes believed that in order to have these rights, governments needed to be ruled by enlightened rulers. New monarchy emerged: Enlightened Absolutism (3)

23 War of the Austrian Succession
Prussia and France invaded Austria; Austria made an alliance with Britain. War ended after 7 years; agreed to the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; Silesia of Austria was lost to Prussia (3)

24 The Seven Years’ War Prussia kept Silesia, Austria wanted it back.
New Allies: French-Austrian rivalry was replaced by Britain-French rivalry and Austrian-Prussian rivalry. These alliances led to a worldwide war: Europe, India, and North America. (3)

25 The War in Europe British and Prussians vs. Austrians, Russians, and French. Prussia’s army was spread too thin, Russia supported them. this caused the war to end and Austria lost Silesia to Prussia. (3)

26 The War in India The British and French fought over India, the French withdrew and the British were left with India. (3)

27 The War in North America
The French and British fought over the colonies in North America. The British won and became the world’s greatest colonial power. (3)

28 Works Cited (1) - "The Enlightenment - Fun Facts and Information." The Enlightenment - Fun Facts and Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec < html>. (2)- "Enlightenment." (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec <>. (3)- "The Enlightenment." The Enlightenment. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec <>. (4)= "Art in The Age of The Enlightenment." Art in the Age of The Enlightenment. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec <>.

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