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 18 TH Century movement movement  Europe  Thinkers apply reason and scientific methods to all aspects of society.

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Presentation on theme: " 18 TH Century movement movement  Europe  Thinkers apply reason and scientific methods to all aspects of society."— Presentation transcript:

1  18 TH Century movement movement  Europe  Thinkers apply reason and scientific methods to all aspects of society

2 The Philosophes  Height of Enlightenment in France  Met in Paris to discuss ideas  Believed people could apply reason to all aspects of life

3 Philosophes cont.  Five concepts of core beliefs:  Reason  Nature  Happiness  Progress  Liberty

4 Thomas Hobbes

5  Absolute monarchy was best  Human beings are naturally:  Violent  Disorderly  Without absolute monarch = chaos  1651 Leviathan  Form social contract  Give up freedoms to be protected and live peacefully  No right to rebel

6 John Locke

7  Government based on social contract  Human beings are naturally:  Reasonable  Moral  All people have natural rights  Life  Liberty  Property

8 Locke cont.  Government created to protect natural rights  People had right to overthrow

9 Voltaire

10 Voltaire  French writer  Fought for:  Tolerance  Reason  Freedom of religion  Freedom of speech  Made many enemies  Sent to jail & later exiled to England for two years

11 Montesquieu

12 Montesquieu  French writer – political liberty  Proposed separation of powers amongst branches of government  Keep individuals or groups from becoming too powerful

13 Rousseau

14 Rousseau  Passionate about individual freedoms  Believed society corrupted people’s natural goodness  Believed only good government was freely formed from the “will of the people”

15 Rousseau cont.  Social contract  Free individuals to create society and government  All people equal  titles of nobility abolished

16 Beccaria

17 Beccaria  Italian philosophe  Laws existed to preserve social order  Argued for rights of the accused  Believed capital punishment should be abolished

18 Adam Smith

19  Father of Economics  If individuals free to pursue own economic self interests  society benefits

20 Adam Smith  Laissez – Faire Economics  Government should leave the economy ALONE  3 roles of government 1.Protect state from invasion 2.Defend citizens from injustices 3.Keep up public works (i.e. roads, canals)

21 Mary Wollstonecraft

22  Philosophes held traditional view toward women  Mary argued that women need education  Urged women to enter fields dominated by men  Medicine  Politics

23 Legacy  Inspired French and American Revolutions  Three long-term effects 1.Belief in progress 2.Rise of more secular outlook 3.Rise of individualism


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