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18TH Century movement Europe

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Presentation on theme: "18TH Century movement Europe"— Presentation transcript:

1 18TH Century movement Europe Thinkers apply reason and scientific methods to all aspects of society

2 The Philosophes Height of Enlightenment in France Met in Paris to discuss ideas Believed people could apply reason to all aspects of life

3 Five concepts of core beliefs:
Philosophes cont. Five concepts of core beliefs: Reason Nature Happiness Progress Liberty

4 Thomas Hobbes

5 Thomas Hobbes Absolute monarchy was best Human beings are naturally:
Violent Disorderly Without absolute monarch = chaos 1651 Leviathan Form social contract Give up freedoms to be protected and live peacefully No right to rebel

6 John Locke

7 John Locke Government based on social contract
Human beings are naturally: Reasonable Moral All people have natural rights Life Liberty Property

8 Locke cont. Government created to protect natural rights People had right to overthrow

9 Voltaire

10 Voltaire French writer Fought for: Made many enemies
Tolerance Reason Freedom of religion Freedom of speech Made many enemies Sent to jail & later exiled to England for two years

11 Montesquieu

12 French writer – political liberty
Montesquieu French writer – political liberty Proposed separation of powers amongst branches of government Keep individuals or groups from becoming too powerful

13 Rousseau

14 Rousseau Passionate about individual freedoms
Believed society corrupted people’s natural goodness Believed only good government was freely formed from the “will of the people”

15 All people equal  titles of nobility abolished
Rousseau cont. Social contract Free individuals to create society and government All people equal  titles of nobility abolished

16 Beccaria

17 Beccaria Italian philosophe Laws existed to preserve social order Argued for rights of the accused Believed capital punishment should be abolished

18 Adam Smith

19 Adam Smith Father of Economics If individuals free to pursue own economic self interests  society benefits

20 Adam Smith Laissez – Faire Economics
Government should leave the economy ALONE 3 roles of government Protect state from invasion Defend citizens from injustices Keep up public works (i.e. roads, canals)

21 Mary Wollstonecraft

22 Mary Wollstonecraft Philosophes held traditional view toward women
Mary argued that women need education Urged women to enter fields dominated by men Medicine Politics

23 Inspired French and American Revolutions Three long-term effects
Legacy Inspired French and American Revolutions Three long-term effects Belief in progress Rise of more secular outlook Rise of individualism

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