Presentation on theme: "Big Idea: The Enlightenment changed the ideas of government."— Presentation transcript:
Big Idea: The Enlightenment changed the ideas of government
Enlightenment: 18 th cen. philosophical movement Philosophe (philosopher) –most were French Meet in Salons (elegant drawing Rooms) Focused on reason: applying scientific methods to understanding & bettering life Middle class literacy rises–printing press Magazines Newspapers
Thomas Hobbes (English) page 476: Alarmed by revolutions Wrote Leviathan before organized society people were nasty, brutish & focused on survival Solution -Social contact Establish absolute ruler preserve order
Jean Jacques Rousseau (French Philosopher) Government people adopted laws & gov to protect private property. social contract- society agrees to be governed by general will (what society feels is best.) those who don’t are forced to Education Foster natural instincts Sought balance btw heart & mind Women-wives & mothers
Wrote Two Treatises of Gov. Against absolute rule Natural rights (life, liberty, property) Gov’s. purpose -protect natural rights-if not people can rebel.- (ex: American Rev). Influenced Enlightenment Everyone born with tabula rasa(blank mind) molded/influenced by environment Change environment- change pe ople.
Wrote Spirit of Laws 3 kinds of gov: 1. Republic -small states 2. Despotism -large states 3. Monarchies -moderate size states Identified 3 branches of Gov & sep. of powers (checks & balances) –(Ex: England) Executive (king), legislative (parliament), the judicial (courts) influence U.S. Constitution.
World machine concept-world followed natural laws understood by systematic investigation. Used scientific method to discover society’s natural laws= better society Voltaire (French philosopher) Criticized Catholic Church - religious intolerance Followed world machine concept added deism mechanic (God) created universe (clock) & set it in motion to run without his interference
wrote the Encyclopedia –collection of knowledge Attacked old views religious superstition Supported religious toleration
Adam Smith (Scottish philosopher) Wrote Wealth of Nations Used natural laws to explain economics. individuals pursue own economic self interest No gov involvement (Laissez Faire) 3 roles of gov 1. Protection 2. Defend from injustice 3. Maintain public works
17 th cen punishments were cruel- deter crime (weak police forces) Enlightenment Views Cesare Beccaria (French Philosopher) Punishment shouldn’t match the crime – not extreme against capital punishment.
Mary Wollstonecraft against obeying men Compared it to monarchs absolute rule over subjects, was wrong. All humans have reason women have reason & are entitled to equal rights
Enlightenment Attacked the Church Desired deeper religious experience new religious movement-Methodism John Wesley. Preached in fields Gave purpose to lower & middle classes Praised hard work & religious happiness
Philosphers, writers, economists, social reformers Philosophes To let (people) do (what they want) Laissez-faire Rousseau argued that society should be governed by what? Social contract
In The Wealth of Nations, ________ gave roles to the government. These roles included protection(army),public works (roads and canals), and defense(the police). Adam Smith Who believed in: balance of heart and mind, rule of the general will, and education fostering natural instincts? Rousseau
Diderot’s Encyclopedia was used to attack what? Religious superstition A system of political limits and controls Separation of powers Idea that God lets the universe run by its own laws deism
Allows for society to be governed by its general will. Social contract Montesquieu’s ideas were used in what? U.S. Constitution