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Big Idea: The Enlightenment changed the ideas of government.

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Presentation on theme: "Big Idea: The Enlightenment changed the ideas of government."— Presentation transcript:

1 Big Idea: The Enlightenment changed the ideas of government

2  Enlightenment: 18 th cen. philosophical movement  Philosophe (philosopher) –most were French  Meet in Salons (elegant drawing Rooms)  Focused on reason: applying scientific methods to understanding & bettering life  Middle class literacy rises–printing press  Magazines  Newspapers

3  Thomas Hobbes (English) page 476:  Alarmed by revolutions  Wrote Leviathan  before organized society people were nasty, brutish & focused on survival  Solution -Social contact  Establish absolute ruler  preserve order

4  Jean Jacques Rousseau (French Philosopher)  Government  people adopted laws & gov to protect private property.  social contract- society agrees to be governed by general will (what society feels is best.)  those who don’t are forced to  Education  Foster natural instincts  Sought balance btw heart & mind  Women-wives & mothers

5  Wrote Two Treatises of Gov.  Against absolute rule  Natural rights (life, liberty, property)  Gov’s. purpose -protect natural rights-if not people can rebel.- (ex: American Rev).  Influenced Enlightenment  Everyone born with tabula rasa(blank mind)  molded/influenced by environment  Change environment- change pe ople.

6  Wrote Spirit of Laws  3 kinds of gov: 1. Republic -small states 2. Despotism -large states 3. Monarchies -moderate size states  Identified 3 branches of Gov & sep. of powers (checks & balances) –(Ex: England)  Executive (king),  legislative (parliament),  the judicial (courts)  influence U.S. Constitution.

7  World machine concept-world followed natural laws understood by systematic investigation.  Used scientific method to discover society’s natural laws= better society  Voltaire (French philosopher)  Criticized Catholic Church - religious intolerance  Followed world machine concept  added deism  mechanic (God) created universe (clock) & set it in motion to run without his interference

8  wrote the Encyclopedia –collection of knowledge  Attacked old views  religious superstition  Supported religious toleration

9  Adam Smith (Scottish philosopher)  Wrote Wealth of Nations  Used natural laws to explain economics.  individuals pursue own economic self interest  No gov involvement (Laissez Faire)  3 roles of gov 1. Protection 2. Defend from injustice 3. Maintain public works

10  17 th cen punishments were cruel- deter crime (weak police forces)  Enlightenment Views  Cesare Beccaria (French Philosopher)  Punishment shouldn’t match the crime – not extreme  against capital punishment.

11  Mary Wollstonecraft  against obeying men  Compared it to monarchs absolute rule over subjects, was wrong.  All humans have reason  women have reason & are entitled to equal rights

12  Enlightenment Attacked the Church  Desired deeper religious experience  new religious movement-Methodism  John Wesley.  Preached in fields  Gave purpose to lower & middle classes  Praised hard work & religious happiness

13  Philosphers, writers, economists, social reformers  Philosophes  To let (people) do (what they want)  Laissez-faire  Rousseau argued that society should be governed by what?  Social contract

14  In The Wealth of Nations, ________ gave roles to the government. These roles included protection(army),public works (roads and canals), and defense(the police).  Adam Smith  Who believed in: balance of heart and mind, rule of the general will, and education fostering natural instincts?  Rousseau

15  Diderot’s Encyclopedia was used to attack what?  Religious superstition  A system of political limits and controls  Separation of powers  Idea that God lets the universe run by its own laws  deism

16  Allows for society to be governed by its general will.  Social contract  Montesquieu’s ideas were used in what?  U.S. Constitution

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