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The Enlightenment Great minds fuel the 1800’s. Philosophes The French word for philosopher The great thinkers of the Enlightenment –‘Applies himself to.

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment Great minds fuel the 1800’s. Philosophes The French word for philosopher The great thinkers of the Enlightenment –‘Applies himself to."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightenment Great minds fuel the 1800’s

2 Philosophes The French word for philosopher The great thinkers of the Enlightenment –‘Applies himself to the study of society with the purpose of making his kind better and happier.’ “Reason, Nature, Happiness, Progress, Liberty” Contributions to many areas –Social studies, art, religion, music

3 John Locke Tabula rasa, or ‘blank slate’ –People are molded by their experiences Opposed absolute monarchs Believed people set up governments to protect their natural rights –Representative and limited Wrote in the Two Treatises of Government that people have a right to life, liberty, and property Thomas Jefferson based much of the Declaration of Independence on Locke’s ideas – “We the people…”

4 Thomas Hobbes Absolute monarchy was the best form of government Wrote Leviathan, a book about anarchy, in 1651 Believed that people should give up their freedom and live obediently under a ruler People do not have the right to rebel against government

5 Baron de Montesquieu Charles-Louis de Secondat Wrote the Spirit of Laws in 1748 Identified 3 kinds of govt. –R–Republics, despotism, and monarchies Created idea of ‘separation of powers’ Checks and Balances –3–3 branches

6 Voltaire French author and Deist Wrote Candide, a satire in which everything happens for the best in “the best of all possible worlds.” Freedom of Speech –1 st Amendment Imprisoned and later exiled for mocking the Church and the French Court

7 Jean-Jacques Rousseau Social Contract –in order to protect property people have become slaves to govt. Liberty is achieved by being forced to follow what is best for ‘the general will’ People should be dominant –Direct Democracy –Public election of Pres. & Cong. Freedom and equality were destroyed by the govt.

8 Cessare Beccaria Italian who fought to reform the justice system. Laws are to preserve social order, not avenge crimes. –Wanted to end torturing witnesses and cruel and unusual punishment! –Abolish capital punishment –Punishment should fit the crime Greatest good for the greatest number of People! Bill of Rights: 8 th Cruel and unusual punishment

9 Adam Smith Wrote The Wealth of Nations in Idea of laissez-faire: let it be Free to pursue self- interests will benefit all Competition & supply and demand –Capitalism Govt. only 3 roles –Protect from invasion –Defend from injustice –Maintain public works

10 Religion William Penn Founder of the Quaker colony of Pennsylvania Believed in Pacifism, or opposition to war & violence Deism Deists believed in god, but denounced organized religion Deism was intended to construct a more simple religion based on natural law Voltaire

11 Assignment Workbook page 163 Finish any unfinished assignments


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