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Presentation on theme: "This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including."— Presentation transcript:

1 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Emotion and Motivation: Feeling and Striving

2 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Emotion A psychological state with four components: –A positive or negative subjective experience –The activation of specific mental processes and stored information –Bodily arousal –Characteristic overt behavior

3 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Question

4 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Which of the following is not a component of emotion? A) bodily arousal B) a positive or negative subjective experience C) objective feelings. D) activation of specific mental processes E) characteristic behavior

5 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Which of the following is not a component of emotion? A) bodily arousal B) a positive or negative subjective experience C) objective feelings. D) activation of specific mental processes E) characteristic behavior

6 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Name the Emotion HappySadFear Anger SurpriseDisgust

7 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Basic emotions Controversial –3 types of disgust/5 types of positive

8 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Are Emotions Universal? Does the Fore tribe in New Guinea identify Caucasian facial expressions?

9 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Question

10 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 An innate emotion that all humans share is called a(n): A) universal experience. B) fundamental feeling. C) objective experience. D) basic emotion. E) expression

11 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 An innate emotion that all humans share is called a(n): A) universal experience. B) fundamental feeling. C) objective experience. D) basic emotion. E) expression

12 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Separate But Equal Emotions Positive and negative emotions can coexist Approach emotions –Love and happiness Withdrawal emotions –Fear and disgust

13 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Emotion: James-Lange Theory Event Physiological arousal Interpret physiological changes Emotion You feel emotions after your body reacts

14 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Emotion: Cannon-Bard Theory Event Physiological arousal The event causes both arousal and emotion Emotion

15 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Emotion: Cognitive Theory Event Physiological arousal Interpret based on context Emotion Your arousal and the context combine to form emotions

16 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Emotion: Emerging Synthesis Event Brain and body reactions Memories and interpretation Different emotions rely on different combinations of body and brain reactions and interpretation Emotion

17 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Question

18 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Which theory of emotion states that your body reacts before you experience an emotion? A) Allport-Cattell B) Cannon-Bard C) cognitive D) Belle-Barrett E) James-Lange

19 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Which theory of emotion states that your body reacts before you experience an emotion? A) Allport-Cattell B) Cannon-Bard C) cognitive D) Belle-Barrett E) James-Lange

20 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Another Question

21 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Which is the best explanation of the Cannon-Bard theory? A) Bodily arousal occurs before emotional response. B) Emotions arise from learned triggers. C) Emotion is nothing but a reflexive response based on instincts. D) Bodily arousal and emotional experience occur simultaneously. E) Emotions are changes in core affect.

22 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Which is the best explanation of the Cannon-Bard theory? A) Bodily arousal occurs before emotional response. B) Emotions arise from learned triggers. C) Emotion is nothing but a reflexive response based on instincts. D) Bodily arousal and emotional experience occur simultaneously. E) Emotions are changes in core affect.

23 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Facial Feedback Hypothesis We experience emotions in part as a result of the positions of our facial muscles –Smiling makes you feel happier –Frowning makes you feel sadder

24 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Schacter-Singer Experiment Participants are told they are receiving a vitamin supplement They actually receive epinephrine

25 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Schacter-Singer Experiment Emotional response depended on context Misattribution of arousal

26 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Fear Four basic facts about fear –Fear can be an emotional reflex –Fear can be classically conditioned –Fear interacts with mental processes –The amygdala does not play a role in producing the emotional “feel” of fear

27 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Question

28 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 It is possible to interpret bodily arousal incorrectly. When this happens, it is called: A) misattribution of arousal. B) interpretive error. C) misapplication of arousal. D) cognitive restructuring. E) an affective disorder.

29 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 It is possible to interpret bodily arousal incorrectly. When this happens, it is called: A) misattribution of arousal. B) interpretive error. C) misapplication of arousal. D) cognitive restructuring. E) an affective disorder.

30 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Happiness Hedonic treadmill-what makes people happy? $$$? Social comparison and happiness People with more left frontal lobe activation tend to be happier Happiness promotes resilience Immune system boost

31 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Question

32 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Darius inherited $500,000 from his grandmother. He bought a new house and a new car and then spent the rest on vacations and new furnishings for the house. Although he is happier, that is likely to fade in a relatively short period of time. This is called ________. A) greener grass syndrome B) the squirrel cage C) the hedonic treadmill D) mice and maze phenomenon E) financial feedback hypothesis

33 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Darius inherited $500,000 from his grandmother. He bought a new house and a new car and then spent the rest on vacations and new furnishings for the house. Although he is happier, that is likely to fade in a relatively short period of time. This is called ________. A) greener grass syndrome B) the squirrel cage C) the hedonic treadmill D) mice and maze phenomenon E) financial feedback hypothesis

34 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 China-social support and happiness Culture and happiness Happy people and self-comparisons Personality and happiness –Assertive –Extraverted 50% of happiness is hereditary

35 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Expressing Emotion Cultural display rules –Japanese vs. westerners –Berkeley experiment-watch video Body language –Nonverbal communication –Gender differences –Role in conveying sexual interest –Victims

36 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Self-control Can you control your emotions? Erotic videos Those who can suppress can’t enhance and vice versa Whites viewing pictures of black and white faces Imitate other’s emotions

37 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Question

38 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Researchers suggest that at least ________ of the variability in happiness may be the result of heredity. A) only 25% B) at least 60% C) about 50% D) less than 10%

39 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Researchers suggest that at least ________ of the variability in happiness may be the result of heredity. A) only 25% B) at least 60% C) less than 50% D) at least 50% E) less than 10%

40 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Motivation The requirements and desires that lead animals (including humans) to behave in a particular way at a particular time and place

41 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The requirements and desires that lead humans and other animals to behave in particular ways at particular times and places are called ________. A) motivations B) drives C) wishes D) instincts E) incentives

42 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The requirements and desires that lead humans and other animals to behave in particular ways at particular times and places are called ________. A) motivations B) drives C) wishes D) instincts E) incentives

43 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Motivation: Instincts Organisms have inherited tendencies to produce organized and unalterable responses to particular stimuli Weakness –Human behaviors are more complex and flexible than instincts can explain Evolutionary psychology –Hard-wired goals

44 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Motivation: Drive In response to internal imbalances, drives push you to reduce the imbalance Homeostasis-the kid who ate salt Weakness –Assumes the goal is homeostasis, but sometimes people seek increased or decreased arousal

45 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Question

46 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 An internal imbalance that motivates humans and other animals to achieve a goal that will reduce the imbalance is called a(n): A) instinct B) drive C) motive cue D) genetic trigger E) affect

47 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 An internal imbalance that motivates humans and other animals to achieve a goal that will reduce the imbalance is called a(n): A) instinct B) drive C) motive cue D) genetic trigger E) affect

48 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Motivation: Arousal Theory We seek intermediate levels of stimulation: when understimulated, we seek arousal; when overstimulated, we seek less stimulation Weakness –Difficult to define levels of stimulation and how they vary

49 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Yerkes-Dodson Law Arousal Level LowHighIntermediate Performance Level High Intermediate Low

50 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Motivation: Incentives We are motivated toward particular goals in anticipation of a reward

51 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 HS grad - $37,000 Associate’s-$46,000 Bachelor’s- $65,000 Advanced- $88,000

52 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Question

53 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 People tend to perform best at ________ levels of arousal. A) low B) intermediate C) high D) variable E) extreme

54 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 People tend to perform best at ________ levels of arousal. A) low B) intermediate C) high D) variable E) extreme

55 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Theories of Motivation: Learned Helplessness Condition that occurs after an animal has an aversive experience in which nothing it does can affect what happens to it, and so it simply gives up and stops trying to change the situation or to escape

56 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Question

57 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Manuel had a personality conflict with his math teacher. No matter how hard he tried to get along, the teacher seemed to single him out. Eventually Manuel just quit trying to get along. He knew it would never help and he just didn't see the point anymore. Manuel's feelings are best described as an example of ________. A) classical conditioning B) the carrot and the stick C) aversion conditioning D) an exaggerated focus E) learned helplessness

58 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Manuel had a personality conflict with his math teacher. No matter how hard he tried to get along, the teacher seemed to single him out. Eventually Manuel just quit trying to get along. He knew it would never help and he just didn't see the point anymore. Manuel's feelings are best described as an example of ________. A) classical conditioning B) the carrot and the stick C) aversion conditioning D) an exaggerated focus E) learned helplessness

59 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Needs and Wants Need –A condition that arises from the lack of a requirement Want –A condition that arises when you have an unmet goal that will not fill a requirement

60 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Needs and Wants Types of rewards –Deprived reward –Nondeprived reward

61 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Wanting something is not the same thing as liking it.

62 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Types of needs 1) To be competent. 2) To be autonomous. 3) To have social approval. 4) To be dominant or in control. 5) To be affiliated with others. 6) To be powerful. 7) To reach closure. 8) To understand. 9) To maintain self-esteem. 10) To find the world benevolent.

63 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological needs Safety needs Belongingness needs Esteem needs Cognitive needs Aesthetic needs Self- actualization needs

64 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Self-Actualization “We may expect that a new discontent and restlessness will soon develop, unless the individual is doing what he’s fitted for. A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately at peace. What a person can be, he must be. This need we call self-actualization.”~Maslow

65 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Question

66 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs is a higher order need than cognitive needs? A) belongingness needs B) esteem needs C) aesthetic needs D) safety needs E) physiological needs

67 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs is a higher order need than cognitive needs? A) belongingness needs B) esteem needs C) aesthetic needs D) safety needs E) physiological needs

68 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Achievement and Culture Individualist culture Collectivist culture Achievement motivation

69 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sexual Behavior Reproductive sex –2% of sex acts Recreational sex –98% of sex acts Difficult to study –Sampling bias –Response bias

70 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sexual Response Cycle Excitement Plateau Orgasm Resolution –Refractory period (men)

71 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

72 The Role of Chemicals Hormones –Androgens Testosterone –Estrogens Pheromones

73 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

74 Ovulation and eroticism –About to ovulate=Increased sexual fantasies –Increased pheremone production –Increased sense of smell

75 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

76 –Prefer “ruggedly handsome” Men’s shifting hormones –Anticipation increase –Married men = lower testosterone at end of day –More time with wife = lower testosterone Oxytocin

77 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sexual Stimuli Visual stimuli –Men more aroused than women –Nature of video (audience) –Less important for women Olfactory stimuli Mating preferences: evolutionary theories –Parental investment –Concerns about infidelity Adolescents-early sex if friends do it

78 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sexual Orientation Heterosexual Homosexual 4-10% –DSM Bisexual Biological differences –Hypothalamus –Genes Environment

79 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What’s Normal? Cultural variations Sexual dysfunction –Male erectile dysfunction –Female arousal dysfunction Atypical sexual behavior: Paraphilias –Pedophile –Fetishes –Transvestism “Homophobia”

80 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

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