2 otivation ** Start of activity to meet physical or psychological need Motivation is the process by which activities are started, directed, and sustained so that physical and psychological needs are fulfilled.L11.21
3 Types of MotivationIntrinsic motivation: Act itself is motivating or internally rewarding** Extrinsic motivation: Outcome is separate from personL11.25
4 Instinct ApproachesInstinct approaches proposed that some human actions may be motivated by instincts, which are innate patterns of behavior found in both people and animals.
5 Drive-Reduction Theory Need: Requirement of material (e.g., food, water) essential for survival** Drive: Need leads to psychological tension and physical arousalDrive-reduction theory: Act to reduce, satisfy need and reduce tensionL11.22
6 Primary and Acquired Drives ** Primary drives: Involve the needs of the bodyAcquired drives: Learned through experienceM8.13
7 ** Homeostasis - the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state. In homeostasis, the body maintains balance in the body’s physical states. For example, this diagram shows how increased hunger (a state of imbalance) prompts a person to eat. Eating increases the level of glucose (blood sugar), causing the feelings of hunger to reduce. After a period without eating, the glucose levels become low enough to stimulate the hunger drive once again, and the entire cycle is repeated.
8 Three Types of NeedsNeed for achievement (nAch): Desire to attain realistic and challenging goalsNeed for affiliation (nAff): Need for social interactionNeed for power (nPow): Need to control or influence othersThe need for achievement is a strong desire to succeed in achieving one’s goals, both realistic and challenging.The need for affiliation is the desire to have friendly social interactions and relationships with others as well as the desire to be held in high regard by others.The need for power concerns having control over others, influencing them, and having an impact on them. Status and prestige are important to people high in this need.L16.13
9 nAch and Personality View of self: Beliefs about one’s own abilities Locus of control: Internal vs. externalBeliefs about intelligence: Fixed vs. changeableThe self-theory of emotion links the need for achievement to the concept of locus of control. A belief in control over one’s life leads to more attempts to achieve, even in the face of failure. Those who believe that they have little control over what happens to them are more likely to develop learned helplessness.M8.42
10 Person has an optimal level of arousal to maintain Arousal TheoryPerson has an optimal level of arousal to maintainSometimes level of arousal is reduced.Other times level of arousal is increased.A stimulus motive is a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity.M8.14
11 Arousal and Performance Yerkes-Dodson law states that performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high. This effect varies with the difficulty of the task: Easy tasks require a high-moderate level whereas more-difficult tasks require a low-moderate level.
12 Sensation SeekingSensation seeker: Someone who needs more arousal than the average personM8.16
13 Incentive Approaches to Motivation ** Incentives: Things that lure people to actionIncentive approaches: Behavior is response to rewards of external stimulusExpectancy-value theoriesBeliefs, values, importanceIn the incentive approach, an external stimulus may be so rewarding that it motivates a person to act toward that stimulus even in the absence of a drive.Wade7.30
14 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ** Self-actualization: Lower needs satisfied, full human potential achievedGrowth vs. deficiency needsPeak experiences: Times when self-actualization is temporarily achievedL14.32
15 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs *** Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs *** Must fulfill the more basic needs, such as physical and security needs, before being able to fulfill the higher needs of self-actualization and transcendence.Maslow proposed that human beings must fulfill the more basic needs, such as physical and security needs, before being able to fulfill the higher needs of self-actualization and transcendence.
16 The Components of Motivation Self-determination theory (SDT): Social context of action has effect on type of motivationRelatednessCompetenceAutonomySelf-determination theory (SDT) is a model of motivation in which three basic needs are seen as necessary to an individual’s successful development.The three needs are autonomy, or the need to be in control of one’s own behavior and goals (i.e., self-determination); competence, or the need to be able to master the challenging tasks of one’s life; and relatedness, or the need to feel a sense of belonging, intimacy, and security in relationships with others.Intrinsic motivation occurs when people act because the act itself is satisfying or rewarding, whereas extrinsic motivation occurs when people receive an external reward (such as money) for the act. Evidence suggests that intrinsic motivation is increased or enhanced when a person not only feels competence but also a sense of autonomy or the knowledge that his or her actions are self-determined rather than controlled by others.** Intrinsic motivation - type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner.Mastering9.5
17 Hunger: Bodily CausesVentromedial hypothalamus: May be involved in stopping eating when glucose level goes upLateral hypothalamus: Appears to influence onset of eating when insulin level goes upHypothalamusWade12.10
18 Hunger: Bodily CausesWeight set point: Level of weight body tries to maintainBasal metabolic rate (BMR): Rate at which body burns energy when restingSome researchers believe that the hypothalamus affects the particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain, called the weight set point. Injury to the hypothalamus does raise or lower the weight set point rather dramatically, causing either drastic weight loss or weight gain.Metabolism, the speed at which the body burns available energy, and exercise also play a part in the weight set point.When the basal metabolic rate slows down, the weight set point increases and makes weight gain more likely.Wade12.11
19 Social Components of Hunger Social cues for when meals are to be eatenCultural customs, food preferences, comfort foodsAnticipation of food may result in insulin response and risk of diabetesL11.30
20 Maladaptive Eating Problems 9.6 What are some problems in eating behavior, and how are they affected by biology and culture?Obesity: Body weight 20% over ideal weight for given heightLeptin: Hormone that signals hypothalamus that body has had enough foodMay play important role in obesityObesity is significantly impacted by genetics, overeating, exercise, and changes in metabolism.A third of the population of the U.S. is obese.Note: Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are discussed in Chapter 14.Wade12.18
22 Three Elements of Emotion 1. Physical arousal 2. Behavior that reveals emotion 3. Inner awareness of feelingsEmotion includes physical, behavioral, and subjective (cognitive) elements.M8.55
23 Physiology of EmotionEmotion associated with sympathetic nervous system activityAmygdala: Fear and facial expressionsHemispheres of the brain:Positive emotions: left frontal lobeNegative feelings: right frontal lobeInterpreting facial expressions: right hemisphereBesides the amygdala, other subcortical and cortical areas of the brain are involved in the processing of emotional information.Research suggests that emotions may work differently depending on which side of the brain is involved.One area of investigation has been the frontal lobes. Researchers have found that positive emotions are associated with the left frontal lobe of the brain whereas negative feelings such as sadness, anxiety, and depression seem to be a function of the right frontal lobe.Researchers have found that when people are asked to identify the emotion on another person’s face, the right hemisphere is more active than the left, particularly in women.Generally, brain areas associated with emotional control are the same brain areas responsible for control of non-emotional information.M8.52
24 Emotional Expression Various ways emotions are expressed Universal expressionsBiological basisCongenitally blind facial expressionsDisplay rulesEkman and Friesen found that people of many different cultures can consistently recognize at least seven facial expressions: anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness, and contempt.Although the emotions and the related facial expressions appear to be universal, exactly when, where, and how an emotion is expressed may be determined by the culture.Display rules that can vary from culture to culture are learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings.L11.16
25 Interpreting subjective feelings Labeling EmotionsInterpreting subjective feelingsLabeling and cultureThe third element of emotion is interpreting the subjective feeling by giving it a label. Another way of labeling this element is to call it the “cognitive element,” because the labeling process is a matter of retrieving memories of previous similar experiences, perceiving the context of the emotion, and coming up with a solution—a label.The label a person applies to a subjective feeling is at least in part a learned response influenced by their language and culture.L11.10
26 Common Sense Theory of Emotion A stimulus (snarling dog) leads to an emotion of fear, which then leads to bodily arousal (in this case, indicated by shaking) through the autonomic nervous system.
27 James-Lange Theory of Emotion 9.8 How do the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories of emotion differ?A stimulus leads to bodily arousal first, which is then interpreted as an emotion.
28 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion A stimulus leads to activity in the brain, which then sends signals to arouse the body and interpret the emotion at the same time.The Cannon-Bard theory asserts that the physiological reaction and the emotion are simultaneous, as the thalamus sends sensory information to both the cortex of the brain and the organs of the sympathetic nervous system.
29 Schachter-Singer Cognitive Arousal Theory 9.9 What are the key elements in cognitive arousal theory, the facial feedback hypothesis, and the cognitive-mediational theory of emotion?A stimulus leads to both bodily arousal and the labeling of that arousal (based on the surrounding context), which leads to the experience and labeling of the emotional reaction.This theory is similar to the James-Lange theory but adds the element of cognitive labeling of the arousal.Both the physiological arousal and the actual interpretation of that arousal must occur before the emotion itself is experienced. This interpretation is based on cues from the environment.
30 ** Facial Feedback Theory of Emotion A stimulus such as this snarling dog causes arousal and a facial expression. The facial expression then provides feedback to the brain about the emotion. The brain then interprets the emotion and may also intensify it.
31 Lazarus’s Cognitive-Mediational Theory A stimulus causes an immediate appraisal (e.g., “The dog is snarling and not behind a fence, so this is dangerous”). The cognitive appraisal results in an emotional response, which is then followed by the appropriate bodily response.In the cognitive-mediational theory of emotion, the cognitive component of emotion (the interpretation) precedes both the physiological reaction and the emotion itself.