2 Theories of Motivation Motivation: an internal state that activates behavior and directs it toward a goal
3 Instinct TheoryInstincts: innate tendencies that determine behavior
4 Drive-Reduction Theory Need: biological or psychological requirement of an organismDrive: a state of tension produced by a need that motivates an organism toward a goalHomeostasis: the tendency of all organisms to correct imbalances and deviations from their normal state.
5 Incentive TheoryIncentive: an external stimulus, reinforcer, or reward that motivates behavior
7 Extrinsic Motivation: engaging in activates that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain external incentivesIntrinsic Motivation: engaging in activities because they are personally rewarding or because they fulfill our beliefs and expectations
8 Biological and Social Motives Biological Motives include :FoodWaterOxygenSleepAvoidance of Pain
9 HungerLateral hypothalamus: the part of the hypothalamus that produces hunger signalsVentromedial hypothalamus: the part of the hypothalamus that can cause one to stop eating
10 Hunger – Other FactorsPsychosocial hunger factors: external cues that can affect eating, such as where, when, and what we eat.
11 ObesityOverweight: a person who is 20 percent over his or her ideal body weightObese: a person who is 30 percent or more above his or her ideal body weight.
13 Measuring the Need for Achievement The achievement motive concerns the desire to set challenging goals and to persist in trying to reach those goals despite obstacles, frustrations, and setbacks.Thematic Apperception Test Image
14 Fear of FailurePeople display fear of failure when they choose easy tasks offering assured success or impossible tasks with no chance of success.
15 Fear of SuccessThe pressure and stress of being successful add anxieties and turns into fear.Some people believe that if they do not meet their expectations or the expectations of others, then they are showing weaknesses.