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Motivation & Emotion.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation & Emotion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation & Emotion

2 Theories of Motivation
Motivation: an internal state that activates behavior and directs it toward a goal

3 Instinct Theory Instincts: innate tendencies that determine behavior

4 Drive-Reduction Theory
Need: biological or psychological requirement of an organism Drive: a state of tension produced by a need that motivates an organism toward a goal Homeostasis: the tendency of all organisms to correct imbalances and deviations from their normal state.

5 Incentive Theory Incentive: an external stimulus, reinforcer, or reward that motivates behavior

6 Cognitive Theory

7 Extrinsic Motivation: engaging in activates that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain external incentives Intrinsic Motivation: engaging in activities because they are personally rewarding or because they fulfill our beliefs and expectations

8 Biological and Social Motives
Biological Motives include : Food Water Oxygen Sleep Avoidance of Pain

9 Hunger Lateral hypothalamus: the part of the hypothalamus that produces hunger signals Ventromedial hypothalamus: the part of the hypothalamus that can cause one to stop eating

10 Hunger – Other Factors Psychosocial hunger factors: external cues that can affect eating, such as where, when, and what we eat.

11 Obesity Overweight: a person who is 20 percent over his or her ideal body weight Obese: a person who is 30 percent or more above his or her ideal body weight.

12 Social Motives

13 Measuring the Need for Achievement
The achievement motive concerns the desire to set challenging goals and to persist in trying to reach those goals despite obstacles, frustrations, and setbacks. Thematic Apperception Test Image

14 Fear of Failure People display fear of failure when they choose easy tasks offering assured success or impossible tasks with no chance of success.

15 Fear of Success The pressure and stress of being successful add anxieties and turns into fear. Some people believe that if they do not meet their expectations or the expectations of others, then they are showing weaknesses.

16 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

17 Fundamental needs: biological drives that must be satisfied to maintain life

18 Psychological Needs: the urge to belong and to give and receive love, and the urge to acquire esteem

19 Self-actualization needs: the pursuit of knowledge and beauty or whatever else is required for the realization of one’s unique potential

20 Emotions

21 Expressing Emotions Emotion: a set of complex reactions to stimuli involving subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and observable behavior

22 The James-Lange Theory

23 The Cannon – Bard Theory

24 Cognitive Theories The Schachter-Singer Experiment

25 Opponent-Process Theory

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