Presentation on theme: "ERASE: A Brief FBA/BIP Process Lorie Spanjers Prairie Lakes Area Education Agency Fort Dodge, Iowa Kim Bodholdt, Counselor Susan."— Presentation transcript:
ERASE: A Brief FBA/BIP Process Lorie Spanjers Prairie Lakes Area Education Agency Fort Dodge, Iowa Kim Bodholdt, Counselor Susan Winter, Classroom Teacher Feelhaver Elementary Fort Dodge, Iowa Based on a Presentation Created By: Rose Iovannone, Ph.D., BCBA-D University of South Florida Florida PBS Project 1
ERASE: A Brief FBA/BIP Process Developed by: Terrance M. Scott, Ph.D. Carl J. Liaupsin, Ed.D. C. Michael Nelson, Ed.D. Liaupsin, C. J., Scott, T. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2006). Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Planning: A Simplified Team Process: Facilitator’s Guide CD-ROM. Longmont, CO: Sopris West 2
Goals of today: Participants will: ◦ Describe steps of a brief functional behavior assessment process, ERASE ◦ Learn about one school’s application of the ERASE process ◦ Discuss how they can use ERASE in their setting Presentation materials will be posted at:
Remember, the triangle is a continuum, not a place. ERASE
The Issue – Two Approaches The child IS the problem so fix him/her ◦ Punish the child to teach a lesson ◦ We hope the problem will go away…Does it? ◦ Who benefits the most from this approach? The child HAS a problem so fix it ◦ Change the environment ◦ Teach new skills ◦ Problem less likely to occur
A box to think outside of: Child
There are many other boxes to explore
ERASE Problem Behavior (Scott, 2006) E xplain - What is the problem? R eason - What is he/she getting out of it or avoiding? A ppropriate - What do you want him/her to do instead? S upport - How can you help this happen more often? E valuate - How will you know if it works?
ERASE Less intensive FBA Meeting typically takes one hour Systematic small team process Intended for students with mild behavior problems (e.g., high frequency, low intensity) Not appropriate for students with intensive or multiple behavior problems
ERASE PROCESS BRIEF EXAMPLE: ERIC AND HIS TEAM
ERIC Referred by teacher for recurrent behavior problems Ms. Smith - Eric’s fourth grade classroom teacher There have been some minor problems with Eric for quite some time. After using the typical classroom management strategies (including moving desk, removing from recess), Ms. Smith has not seen any change in behavior and has decided that she needs help. That’s why she initiated this request for assistance.
Team-Based Planning Effective Teaming ◦ Range of persons with vested interest ◦ Knowledge of student ◦ Perspectives and experiences shared ◦ Collaborative brainstorming and plans ◦ Focus on student Representation of Three Levels of Knowledge 1.Student 2.Behavioral Principles 3.Context
Team Members Teacher PE Teacher Counselor Principal Librarian Parent
What are the Team’s Tasks? Team Tasks ◦ Assess Define problem, identify predictable patterns, and determine function ◦ Intervene Instruction, environmental arrangements, and consequences ◦ Evaluate Monitor, measure, and create criteria for success
E xplain - What is the problem? ◦ Definition of Behavior and Context ◦ Observable See it, hear it, feel it, smell it, taste it? Measurable How many, how long, how intense? ◦ Recognizable We all agree when it happens
Define Problems and Context
Eric (Observation #1)
Eric (Observation #2)
Eric (Observation #3)
Describe Context Assess behavior in relationship to environmental contexts (antecedents and consequences) Tool for intervention planning
Problem Analysis Team Identifies Predictors
Problem Analysis Disruptive noises Independent work time & no direct teacher attention Teacher attention (answering questions, granting requests, etc.) WHAT ARE THE TYPICAL ANTECEDENTS, BEHAVIORS, AND CONSEQUENCES FOR ERIC? Disruptive noises (humming, tapping pencil, pounding on desk, yelling)
R eason - What is he/she getting out of it or avoiding? Based on brief functional behavioral assessment Several observations, perspectives Identifies predictable relationships between environmental variables and behavior When student will because therefore the function of the behavior is to get or get out of (some antecedent condition occurs) (engage in a specific behavior) (a predictable outcome will occur) (something in the environment)
Analyze Patterns & Identify Function
Create a Valid Statement of Function During independent work times in the classroom and when the teacher is not attending directly to Eric, he engages in noisemaking to access the teacher’s attention to meet his requests.
Let’s Review The ERASE Process Assessment ◦ Develop a collaborative team of persons familiar with the student ◦ Identify the problem ◦ Analyze the problem and how it is related to environmental events ◦ Determine the function of behavior Intervention - (next)
A ppropriate - What do you want him/her to do instead? Replacement behaviors are what we want the student to do instead of the problem Effective replacement behavior must: 1.Be incompatible with the problem. 2.Serve the same function as the problem. PROBLEM REPLACEMENT FUNCTION
Effective, Efficient, Relevant Replacement behaviors will only catch on with the student when they work better than the problem behavior in terms of: Must look like what others in the environment do under similar circumstances - must be appropriate for student. Must serve the same function (obtain the same outcome) as the problem behavior - if it doesn’t work, the student won’t do it. Must work at least as quickly and easily as the problem behavior - if it works but is harder to perform, the student won’t do it.
Replacement Behaviors Develop replacement behaviors for each of these problems: Think: relevant, effective, efficient Walking in the hall Answering correctly when asked Sitting down and waiting for teacher to dismiss Asking for help
Planning Instruction Replacement behaviors must be taught. Planning for instruction requires thought regarding: What is the behavior? ◦ Can the student perform the behavior? ◦ What examples will help to teach this? When should the behavior occur? ◦ Where should the behavior occur? Why should the behavior occur (what will happen)?
S upport - How can you help this happen more often? What conditions make it likely that Eric will be unsuccessful in using the replacement behavior? Hint: Think about consequences for replacement and problem behavior - are they teaching what we want to teach? What could be done in the environment to make this failure less likely?
Predicting and Preventing Failure
Facilitating Success How can we set Eric up for success? ◦ What conditions will make it more likely that Eric will be successful in using his replacement behavior? ◦ What could be done in the environment to make success more likely? ◦ Hint—think about the antecedents to replacement behavior. Does the teacher have the strategies in place to remind and prompt Eric?
Team Meeting Record
Consequences – Using Replacement Behavior Reinforcers ◦ After positive behavior - increase future likelihood ◦ Approximate and/or pair with natural reinforcers Why does behavior occur in the environment? ◦ Make part of routine and systems Be consistent ◦ Pre-plan and teach consequences Teach the student what to expect
Reinforcing Eric What is the natural consequence for Eric’s replacement behavior? Is that consequence under teacher control? How can we use that as a reinforcer for Eric? Is there need for anything artificial?
Positive Consequences for Replacement Behavior
Consequences-Problem Behavior Responses that follow problem behavior Goal: Decrease problem behavior occurrence Five Rules 1.Use the least amount necessary 2.Pre-plan, teach, be consistent 3.Use only when supports are in place to reinforce replacement behavior 4.Defeat function of problem behavior 5.Examine plan if consequences are not working
Consequences What consequences can be used if Eric forgets to raise his hand? How should the teacher respond or what should she do so that she is no longer reinforcing problem behavior? ◦ Hint: Think about the function of Eric’s behavior and how the teacher usually responds?
Negative Consequences for Problem Behavior
E valuate - How will you know if it works? What do we want and how will we know if it works? ◦ Measure behavior change ◦ Target criteria for successful performance
Monitoring and Objectives
Identify Target/Objective of Intervention During 80% of opportunities by the end of the quarter Eric will raise his hand and wait quietly for teacher attention During independent work times in the classroom or library
Follow-Up Keep it! ◦ Identify additional needs ◦ Raise the bar ◦ Fade prompts ◦ Celebrate! Stop and Problem- solve ◦ Review function statement ◦ Re-teach behavior ◦ Add prompts or cues ◦ Identify prerequisites ◦ Make changes to plan ◦ Consider more intensive process
Review We have covered the following topics: ◦ Completing a functional assessment ◦ Determining the function of behavior ◦ Determining a functional replacement behavior ◦ Making instructional decisions ◦ Creating effective instructional environments ◦ Responding to desired and undesired behaviors ◦ Measuring progress
ERASE – A Case Example Feelhaver Elementary, Fort Dodge Kim Bodholdt, Counselor Susan Winter, Classroom Teacher
Case Example Student: Liz Team Members: ◦ Classroom teacher ◦ Special education teacher ◦ School counselor ◦ Assistant principal Initial Behavior of Concern: ◦ Inappropriate noise making ◦ Excessive movement at inappropriate times ◦ Invasion of personal space ◦ Doing the opposite of what the teacher asks or classroom rules
Case Example - ABC Antecedents – most likely ◦ When Liz is being ignored or not receiving attention ◦ When other students are given positive acknowledgement Antecedents – least likely ◦ One-on-one adult attention ◦ When being redirected Consequences: ◦ Access to attention from peers and adults Function of Behavior: ◦ Gain teacher and/or peer attention
Case Example – Predictable Explanation of Behavior General Antecedents Problem Behaviors General Consequences Liz not receiving direct attention or peers being highlighted for positives Liz does the opposite of what is expected Receives negative adult attention
Case Example Hypothesis Statement: ◦ When Liz is not the center of attention, she engages in disruptive behavior to gain teacher and/or peer attention
Case Example Replacement Behavior: ◦ Liz will raise her hand when she wishes to speak. ◦ Liz will follow directions the first time given. Instruction: ◦ Teacher will teach replacement behavior to entire class. ◦ All teachers will use the strategy.
Case Example Support : ◦ Liz will have a clip board with a bucket filler bucket coloring sheet with 15 hearts. Each time she exhibits the replacement behavior, she can fill in a heart. ◦ Liz will watch a video clip of expected behaviors (sitting, raising her hand) ◦ Liz will have built in positive attention as follows: 10 minutes in the morning with the foster grandma 5 minutes in the middle of the day with Julie H. (reading para) 30 minute rest time in the library with Ms. Moser (library para) 10 minutes at the end of the day with Merita(reading para). During that time, Liz will share her bucket filler sheet and what she did to fill in the hearts.
Case Example Positive Consequences: ◦ Natural: positive attention from adults ◦ Artificial: fill bucket, positive attention from 4 different adults built into daily schedule Negative Consequences: ◦ Neutral voice tone ◦ State replacement behavior to whole class
Case Example Measurement: ◦ Use of replacement behavior measured by number of hearts colored on bucket filler sheet ◦ Problem behavior tracked by a clicker Behavioral Objective: ◦ Within the school setting, Liz will raise her hand and follow classroom rules and expectations, as measured by 15 circles filled in each day.
Case Example – Follow Up Data Review ◦ Liz is averaging 7.8 negative marks per day. Behavior of Concern: Aggression ◦ Liz’s behaviors have increased in intensity, most specifically physical and verbal aggression (eating erasers, blocking classmates in the closet). ◦ This trend in data indicates that Liz is not filling her need for attention (peer attention) through previous behaviors.
Case Example Parent Concerns ◦ Mom is uncomfortable sharing negative information with Liz about her school day. ◦ Team felt it was necessary to communicate the physical aggression with mom. ◦ An in-home counselor is working with Liz’s mom on parenting skills.
Case Example Intervention Decision ◦ Utilize Liz’s in-home counselor to communicate about behavior ◦ Mrs. B. will contact the counselor and share the most recent behavioral data and any changes we are making to Liz’s intervention. ◦ Referrals will be written for the physical aggression and verbal aggression incidents. ◦ Information about these referrals will be communicated home through the office, rather than the classroom teacher.
Case Example Other Intervention Changes Mrs. B. and Mrs. W. will adapt Liz’s current bucket filler sheet so that her new goal is 8 hearts a day. Structure a time each day that Liz can take a friend and work with Mrs. M. to help fill her peer bucket. The intervention with Julie H. is going well and will be continued.
Case Example During remainder of Kindergarten year: ◦ Artificial reinforcement was faded by increasing number of hearts needed to earn reward ◦ Slowly reduced amount of adult attention provided ◦ By end of year, no supports needed Liz currently in 1 st grade ◦ No additional supports being provided
Resources Liaupsin, C. J., Scott, T. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2006). Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Planning: A Simplified Team Process: Facilitator’s Guide CD- ROM. Longmont, CO: Sopris West