Presentation on theme: "ERASE: A Brief FBA/BIP Process"— Presentation transcript:
1ERASE: A Brief FBA/BIP Process Lorie SpanjersPrairie Lakes Area Education AgencyFort Dodge, IowaKim Bodholdt, CounselorSusan Winter, Classroom TeacherFeelhaver ElementaryBased on a Presentation Created By:Rose Iovannone, Ph.D., BCBA-DUniversity of South FloridaFlorida PBS ProjectFacilitator Script:In this presentation we will learn how a team-based functional assessment and intervention can benefit students with typical problem behaviors in general education classrooms.As the process unfolds, you will have opportunities to be involved in some of the assessment and decision making steps.Tips:Consider describing your own background, training, or qualifications.Consider asking the participants about their prior knowledge of the topic, their professional role, and their reasons for attending the training event.
2ERASE: A Brief FBA/BIP Process Developed by:Terrance M. Scott, Ph.D.Carl J. Liaupsin, Ed.D.C. Michael Nelson, Ed.D.Liaupsin, C. J., Scott, T. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2006). Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Planning: A Simplified Team Process: Facilitator’s Guide CD-ROM. Longmont, CO: Sopris WestFacilitator Script:The ERASE process was developed by Terry Scott, et. al.ERASE resources are available at Sopris West
3Goals of today: Participants will: Describe steps of a brief functional behavior assessment process, ERASELearn about one school’s application of the ERASE processDiscuss how they can use ERASE in their settingPresentation materials will be posted at:
4Remember, the triangle is a continuum, not a place. ERASEJust a reminder that ERASE is one element of a continuum of supports provided to students who experience behavioral difficulties.
6The Issue – Two Approaches The child IS the problem so fix him/herPunish the child to teach a lessonWe hope the problem will go away…Does it?Who benefits the most from this approach?The child HAS a problem so fix itChange the environmentTeach new skillsProblem less likely to occur
8There are many other boxes to explore ChildThere are many other boxes to explore
9ERASE Problem Behavior (Scott, 2006) Explain - What is the problem? Reason - What is he/she getting out of it or avoiding? Appropriate - What do you want him/her to do instead? Support - How can you help this happen more often?Evaluate - How will you know if it works?
10ERASE Less intensive FBA Meeting typically takes one hour Systematic small team processIntended for students with mild behavior problems (e.g., high frequency, low intensity)Not appropriate for students with intensive or multiple behavior problems
12ERIC Referred by teacher for recurrent behavior problems There have been some minor problems with Eric for quite some time. After using the typical classroom management strategies (including moving desk, removing from recess), Ms. Smith has not seen any change in behavior and has decided that she needs help. That’s why she initiated this request for assistance.Facilitator Script:Eric is a fourth grade student who has demonstrated recurrent behavior problems for which Ms. Smith has requested assistance.She has tried all the typical classroom management strategies including moving his desk and having him miss recess but nothing seems to work with any consistency.She has completed this request for assistance because she’s not sure what to do next.Tips:Discuss the request for assistance from the perspective of the teacher.At what point should this request come?What should have been tried first?What information should be provided at the first meeting?Ms. Smith - Eric’s fourth grade classroom teacher
13Team-Based Planning Effective Teaming Range of persons with vested interestKnowledge of studentPerspectives and experiences sharedCollaborative brainstorming and plansFocus on studentRepresentation of Three Levels of KnowledgeStudentBehavioral PrinciplesContextFacilitator Script:We could just work from Ms. Smith’s statement that Eric makes noises in the classroom that are disrupting the learning of other students.But this information alone isn’t enough to completely understand what it is that Eric is doing and why.However, we can get a better idea of what we’re dealing with if we put together a team of persons who have regular interactions with Eric.Effective teaming in these cases requires that we involve a range of persons who know Eric.In this way, we get a range of information from a variety of perspectives.Tips:Prompt participants to consider who might be on a team for an elementary student such as Eric.
14Team Members Principal Librarian Counselor Teacher PE Teacher Parent Facilitator Script:The following people have been asked to attend the meeting and be a part of the team for Eric.Of course, as the referring teacher, Ms. Smith is on the team.Joining her are the PE teacher and librarian, who both see Eric in their classes.The counselor who chairs referral meetings for all students.The principal who tries to sit in on as many referral meetings as she can.And the parent who knows Eric better than anyone.These people were selected because they each have their own perspectives and experience with Eric.This is the team that will develop a plan for Eric.Tips:Discuss why each of the selected members makes sense as a participant on the team.
15What are the Team’s Tasks? Team TasksAssessDefine problem, identify predictable patterns, and determine functionInterveneInstruction, environmental arrangements, and consequencesEvaluateMonitor, measure, and create criteria for successFacilitator Script:In simplest terms, the goal of the team is to collaborate to determine why Eric is displaying problems behaviors and then to use that information to develop an effective intervention plan.Their first tasks are to define the problem behavior, identify common or predictable patterns of behavior, and determine the purpose or function of Eric’s behavior.Then, the team works to develop an intervention plan that involves instruction and creation of effective environments to facilitate Eric’s success.Finally, the team must develop a plan for monitoring Eric’s performance and evaluating the success of their plan.Tips:Discuss these three areas as the big tasks that comprise the entire FBA/BIP process.
16Explain - What is the problem? Definition of Behavior and ContextObservableSee it, hear it, feel it, smell it, taste it?MeasurableHow many, how long, how intense?RecognizableWe all agree when it happensFacilitator Script:As the team looks at the description of behavior written by Ms. Smith, they engage in a discussion to get more details about the student’s behavior.Formulating definitions that are observable, measurable, and recognizable will help the team understand the nature of the problem and the context in which it occurs.The team should share relevant information and refine their ideas until they come to a consensus regarding a definition of the problem behavior.Tips:Consider asking participants to give examples of definitions of behavior that do and do not meet the requirements listed on the slide.
17Define Problems and Context !This slide contains a Video!Segment 1Facilitator Script:Let’s watch the team begin the assessment process by talking about the behavior itself.Notice that not all of the team members see the exact same thing from Eric and that this discussion requires each member to understand the other’s individual perspectives.Also notice how the counselor keeps the team on course by referring back to the Team Meeting Record form as a guide for completing the process.Tips:Play the video by clicking on it.Ask participants to describe any team dynamics that may stand out.Prompt participants that the principal in this particular case often nearly leads the team off task.Point out that such problems are always dealt with simply by prompting the group back to the form as a guide for completing the process.
18!This slide contains a Video! Eric (Observation #1)!This slide contains a Video!Vignette 1Facilitator Script:You heard Ms. Smith say she could think of three times just this morning when she had to “get after” Eric about noises.If she tells these stories in detail we can begin to get a better picture of what is going on.As she describes these three incidents you will have the luxury of actually seeing Ms. Smiths stories.Watch these three incidents and see if you can detect any predictable patterns.Try to concentrate on the ABC format, identifying similar types of actions or events that seem to always happen just before or just after the behavior.Tips:Play video by clicking on it.Consider asking participants to record antecedents, behaviors, and consequences as they watch the movies.Consider asking participants at the end of each video to describe the antecedent, behavior, and consequence surrounding the problem behavior.
19!This slide contains a Video! Eric (Observation #2)!This slide contains a Video!Vignette 2Facilitator Script:Let’s watch the second video.Remember to pay particular attention to the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences.Also consider whether you see a pattern developing.Tips:Play the second video by clicking on it.Consider reminding the participants to record the behavior chains on paper.Consider asking participants to describe the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences immediately after viewing the video.
20!This slide contains a Video! Eric (Observation #3)!This slide contains a Video!Vignette 3Facilitator Script:Let’s watch the third and final video.Remember to pay particular attention to the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences.Also consider whether you see a pattern developing.Tips:Play the video by clicking on it.Consider reminding the participants to record the behavior chains on paper.Consider asking participants to describe the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences immediately after viewing the video.
21Describe ContextAssess behavior in relationship to environmental contexts (antecedents and consequences)Tool for intervention planningFacilitator Script:The purpose of a functional assessment is to assess the relationship between a behavior and its surrounding environment.If we look at the things that happen right before and right after behavior we can begin to predict when the behavior will occur and why it is occurring.This information is use to understand the “function” or purpose behind problem behavior.This information is used to create an effective intervention plan.Tips:DFacilitator Script:The purpose of a functional assessment is to assess the relationship between a behavior and its surrounding environment.If we look at the things that happen right before and right after behavior we can begin to predict when the behavior will occur and why it is occurring.This information is used to understand the “function” or purpose behind problem behavior.This information is used to create an effective intervention plan.Tips:Consider asking participants about their level of understanding of functional assessment or functional analysis.
22!This slide contains a Video! Problem AnalysisTeam Identifies Predictors!This slide contains a Video!Segment 2Facilitator Script:Now let’s see how the team continues this discussion by hearing the perspectives of other team members.Notice how they talk about Eric’s positive behaviors as well as his problems and use this information to help create a clearer picture of what is going on.As the team members speak, the counselor puts their examples into an ABC format on the form.Tips:Play video by clicking on it.Ask participants why it might be useful to describe situations in which Eric does display appropriate behavior.Ask participants to pay particular attention to how the team members dissect incidents to arrive at an A, a B, and a C.
23Predictors Facilitator Script: Now that the descriptions of Eric’s behavior are in an ABC format, the team can begin to look for predictable patterns.Notice that both problem and appropriate behaviors are included.Although the antecedents and consequences are not identical for problem or appropriate behavior, they do have some things in common.Consider how you might summarize the general antecedent conditions that tend to predict behavior and the general consequences that tend to follow problem behavior.How are they different or similar to the antecedents and consequences surrounding instances of appropriate behavior.Tips:Through discussion, help participants identify independent work times and no teacher attention as predictors of problems.Through discussion, help participants identify teacher attention as a predictor of both positive and negative behavior.In addition, point out that, when Eric’s behavior is appropriate, attention is being delivered regularly as part of the activity.
24Problem Analysis Independent work time & no direct teacher attention Disruptive noisesTeacher attention (answering questions, granting requests, etc.)Disruptive noises (humming, tapping pencil, pounding on desk, yelling)!This slide contains an Animation!Facilitator Script:Think about the ABC information you just saw.Consider how you might summarize all the identified antecedents, behaviors, and consequences.Next we’ll consider the possible function of Eric’s behavior.The ABC assessment should lead to a testable statement of the function of behavior which we’ll talk about next.Tips:Prompt participants to consider a simple statement for each of the 3 areas to summarize the ABC information they saw on the last slide.First consider antecedents and click once to get the example summary on screen.Repeat for behavior and consequences.When finished, ask what the outcomes say about a possible function for Eric.Take some guesses, and prompt that an exercise on determining function is next.WHAT ARE THE TYPICAL ANTECEDENTS, BEHAVIORS, AND CONSEQUENCES FOR ERIC?
25Reason - What is he/she getting out of it or avoiding? Based on brief functional behavioral assessmentSeveral observations, perspectivesIdentifies predictable relationships between environmental variables and behaviorWhenstudent willbecausetherefore the function of the behavior is to get or get out of!This slide contains an Animation!(some antecedent condition occurs)Facilitator Script:Hypotheses are “if-then” statements.They describe the relationships that the team believes exist between observable environmental events and students’ behavior.Hypotheses should be based on repeated observations of predictable relationships.Keep in mind that a single example is not sufficient for generating hypotheses regarding function.Assessments should lead to a general understanding of what observable events predict a given behavior.Let’s use the format on the screen to help us write a hypothesis of Eric’s behavior.Tips:Click once to see each prompt on the blank line.Have participants practice writing hypothesis statements for Eric - in the form presented on the slide.(engage in a specific behavior)(a predictable outcome will occur)(something in the environment)
26Analyze Patterns & Identify Function !This slide contains a Video!Segment 3—unable to play due to damaged discFacilitator Script:Have you developed some ideas about how the general antecedents and consequences might predict Eric’s behavior?Let’s listen to the team discuss this issue.As you watch, notice how they talk about patterns of positive and negative behavior in developing a functional statement.Tips:Play the video clip by clicking on it.Prompt participants to focus on how the team members used the ABC information for both positive and negative behaviors to analyze typical interactions with the environment and to develop a valid statement of function.
27Create a Valid Statement of Function During independent work times in the classroom and when the teacher is not attending directly to Eric, he engages in noisemaking to access the teacher’s attention to meet his requests.!This slide contains a Video!Facilitator Script:Look at the completed form here and compare it to your own conclusions.It is true that the information gathered by the team could suggest other explanations and functions.However, for this team, the information presented has lead them to feel fairly certain that they now understand how Eric’s behavior functions in the classroom.But what if this process did not lead to a clear explanation -- and the behavior seemed just as unpredictable after the analysis?Under these conditions the team should collect more information before continuing the analytical process.Tips:Click once to display statement of function.Refer participants to the correct section of the form.Discuss how the statement came from ABC.If the function were not clear then the process would continue with more data collection and continued analysis.NOTE: More in-depth description of the process for the most complex cases may be found in the CD “Functional assessment of behavior: An interactive training module” - available from Sopris West, Inc.
28Let’s Review The ERASE Process Assessment Intervention - (next) Develop a collaborative team of persons familiar with the studentIdentify the problemAnalyze the problem and how it is related to environmental eventsDetermine the function of behaviorIntervention - (next)Facilitator Script:Thus far we have talked about the assessment phase of the process.This process begins by developing a team of persons who are familiar with the student and who will collaborate to discuss their individual experiences with the student.The remainder of the assessment component of the process involves identifying the problem behavior, analyzing its relationship with the environment, and developing a valid statement of function.The intervention phase of the process involves the development of an individualized behavior plan based on the function of behavior.Tips:Consider asking participants if the assessment phase of the process is similar to any procedures they have used in the past.
29Appropriate - What do you want him/her to do instead? Replacement behaviors are what we want the student to do instead of the problemEffective replacement behavior must:Be incompatible with the problem.Serve the same function as the problem.Facilitator Script:The first step in the intervention planning process is to determine what it is that the student should be doing instead of or in place of the problem behavior.To simply attempt to squash a problem behavior without providing a replacement will not be an effective intervention in the long run.A replacement behavior is both incompatible with the identified problem behavior – that is, the student cannot do both at the same time – and serves the same function as the problem.When both these conditions are met, replacement behaviors are much more likely to work.However, you’re probably thinking that many students already have the skills to perform replacement behavior but simply choose not to use them – and in other cases they don’t have the skills to perform the replacement behavior.These circumstances call for different approaches and we’ll discuss how interventions involve much more than simply telling students what we want them to do.Tips:Consider providing examples of how punishing the problem behavior without providing a replacement behavior will not be productive.PROBLEMFUNCTIONREPLACEMENT
30Effective, Efficient, Relevant Replacement behaviors will only catch on with the student when they work better than the problem behavior in terms of:RELEVANTMust look like what others in the environment do under similar circumstances - must be appropriate for student.Facilitator Script:Determining what the replacement behavior will be is relatively simple - making it actually take hold and be used by the student on a consistent basis is much harder.The replacement must be carefully considered to ensure that the student will see it as a good alternative to problem behavior.First, replacement behaviors need to be relevant. We might ask what successful students in the environment do under similar circumstances.Second, replacement behaviors must be more effective than the problem behavior. If the decision is between a problem behavior that works well and a replacement behavior that does not, the student will always continue with the problem behavior.Third, replacement behaviors must be at least as efficient as the problem behavior. If the replacement works but requires a good deal of effort or works much more slowly than the problem behavior, the student is likely to return to the problem behavior.Tips:Prompt participants to consider the meaning of each of these concepts.Provide examples of how each is important in making the replacement behavior appear preferable to the problem.EFFECTIVEMust serve the same function (obtain the same outcome) as the problem behavior - if it doesn’t work, the student won’t do it.EFFICIENTMust work at least as quickly and easily as the problem behavior - if it works but is harder to perform, the student won’t do it.
31Replacement Behaviors Develop replacement behaviors for each of these problems:Think: relevant, effective, efficientWalking in the hallAnswering correctly when askedSitting down and waiting for teacher to dismissAsking for help!This slide contains an Animation!Facilitator Script:Now here’s a chance for you to practice developing some replacement behaviors.For each of the problems and identified functions, think of a behavior that would be functional and also be relevant, effective, and efficient.You won’t know exactly what is relevant because you don’t know the environment -- but you can guess.Remember that replacement behaviors should be functional and incompatible with the problem behavior.They should also be more relevant, effective, and efficient than the problem behavior.Tips:Discuss each of the four examples with participants.Click once for each example to see the replacement behavior.Remind participants that there may be more than one appropriate replacement for any problem behavior.
32!This slide contains a Video! Replacement Behavior!This slide contains a Video!Segment 4Facilitator Script:Now let’s watch the team consider the issue of a replacement behavior for Eric.As you watch, notice how the team members discuss relevance in terms of what successful students use to get the teacher’s attention.Tips:Prompt participants to look for how the team develops the replacement behavior and the types of issues they discuss.Play the video by clicking on it.
33Planning Instruction Replacement behaviors must be taught. Planning for instruction requires thought regarding:What is the behavior?Can the student perform the behavior?What examples will help to teach this?When should the behavior occur?Where should the behavior occur?Why should the behavior occur (what will happen)?Facilitator Script:Now the team must begin talking about instruction.This is a complicated step because the team must determine not only what is to be taught but what type of instruction is necessary; they must also determine when, where, and why that behavior should occur.In addition, we know that good instruction involves providing examples of when the behavior should and should not be used.So we come up with examples that are likely to occur in the natural environment.The team must determine what examples are best for teaching the skill they want the student to use.Tips:Prompt participants to consider the following questions regarding teaching Eric to raise his hand and wait quietly for the teacher.Do you think he is physically able to do this?Do you think he knows how to do this?What do you think instruction should consist of and what examples would help in teaching when, where, and why?
34!This slide contains a Video! Instruction!This slide contains a Video!Segment 5Facilitator Script:Let’s watch the team discuss instruction for Eric.Notice that they discuss the fact that he already does raise his hand under some circumstances but not in others.Be prepared to discuss what the team has decided to do for instruction. Do you think this is enough?Tips:Play the video by clicking on it.Prompt participants to consider whether the instructional plan is complete or how they might alter it.
35Assessment & Intervention Record—Design Instruction Facilitator Script:The team has determined that Eric needs to understand that raising his hand and waiting quietly will be an appropriate behavior for getting attention only when in the classroom -- not on the playground or in PE.This is a distinction that must be taught so that he does not make the error of using the replacement under conditions where it will not work.In addition, the team has selected natural examples from the environment to use in teaching Eric contexts and conditions under which hand raising will be effective.Tips:Prompt the participants to consider the examples that might be necessary to teach other types of behaviors.
36Support - How can you help this happen more often? What conditions make it likely that Eric will be unsuccessful in using the replacement behavior?Hint: Think about consequences for replacement and problem behavior - are they teaching what we want to teach?What could be done in the environment to make this failure less likely?Facilitator Script:Every individual student has his or her own unique behavior, predictive conditions, and function.Therefore, predictors and prevention strategies must be unique to the student.Can you think of some situations in which you might predict that Eric will fail to use the replacement behavior - or will stop using it?We’ll look at a couple of examples of predictable failure.As we do, you should consider what could be done to prevent this failure.Tips:Prompt participants to consider the types of conditions under which Eric will not be successful.Provide them with the hint that they should focus on the consequences that follow both the replacement and problem behaviors.
37!This slide contains a Video! Preventing Failure!This slide contains a Video!Segment 6Facilitator Script:The team came up with the two scenarios we just discussed - that they felt predicted Eric’s failure.They also developed solutions to help prevent these failures.As you watch this scenario, note that Ms. Jung uses the pronoun “we” when talking about procedures for implementing the intervention.This encourages everyone to regard the problem that Ms. Smith is experiencing with Eric as belonging to the team and not just something that is Ms. Smith’s responsibility.Using “team language” also makes it clear that no one is blaming Ms. Smith for the problem, and it encourages team ownership of solutions as well.Tips:Play the video by clicking on it.Prompt participants to notice the “we” language in the team meeting - facilitating collaboration and sharing.Note the simplicity of the solutions.
38Predicting and Preventing Failure Facilitator Script:Notice that the team has recorded its solutions to the predictable problems.Each of these solutions is simple and agreeable to all - especially the teacher who will be the person responsible for implementing them.Tips:Prompt participants to consider how the solutions are simple and made agreeable to the teacher.
39Facilitating Success How can we set Eric up for success? What conditions will make it more likely that Eric will be successful in using his replacement behavior?What could be done in the environment to make success more likely?Hint—think about the antecedents to replacement behavior. Does the teacher have the strategies in place to remind and prompt Eric?Facilitator Script:In addition to considering predictable failures, the team needs to consider ways to increase the probability of success.The team should consider prompts, cues, and routines that set up Eric to be more likely to remember to raise his hand.Consider some strategies that you think might help to make Eric’s success more likely.Tips:Prompt participants to consider the types of conditions under which Eric will be more likely to be successful.Provide them with the hint that they should focus on the antecedents to behavior.Note that one solution might be to provide visual and verbal reminders immediately prior to times when behavior is expected to increase the likelihood of success.
40!This slide contains a Video! Facilitate Success!This slide contains a Video!Segment 7Facilitator Script:The team came up with the two scenarios we just discussed, which they felt predicted Eric’s failure.They also developed solutions to help prevent these failures.Let’s watch a demonstration of one solution selected by the team.Tips:Play the video by clicking on it.Prompt participants to notice the simplicity of the solutions.Both solutions can be applied by the teacher in any typical classroom and create situations in which Eric is more likely to use the replacement behavior and more likely to be successful.
41Team Meeting Record Facilitator Script: The team has recorded several different strategies for facilitating success - some listed here were not discussed in the video you saw.However, all of these strategies are simple teacher-based strategies that can be applied as part of effective management in any classroom.Next, it will be time for the team to consider developing consequences for instances in which Eric does, and does not, properly use the replacement behavior.Tips:Prompt participants to notice several team strategies that were not presented in the video.Still, all are simple teacher-based strategies for effective management in the classroom.Next slide begins discussion of consequences.
42Consequences – Using Replacement Behavior ReinforcersAfter positive behavior - increase future likelihoodApproximate and/or pair with natural reinforcersWhy does behavior occur in the environment?Make part of routine and systemsBe consistentPre-plan and teach consequencesTeach the student what to expectFacilitator Script:Reinforcement is defined as any action taken immediately following a behavior that makes that behavior more likely to occur under similar circumstances in the future.There are four rules that are helpful to keep in mind when considering reinforcement.First, we should always use the least amount of a reinforcer that is necessary to get the desired behavior.Second, we should strive to use naturally occurring reinforcers for a behavior.Third, reinforcement needs to be consistent and immediate as part of a normal routine.Fourth, all consequences must be taught so that the student knows what to expect.Tips:Prompt the participants to discuss whether some of the reinforcers in their school or daily life meet these criteria.
43Reinforcing EricWhat is the natural consequence for Eric’s replacement behavior?Is that consequence under teacher control?How can we use that as a reinforcer for Eric?Is there need for anything artificial?Facilitator Script:Let’s talk about reinforcement for Eric.To start, what is the natural consequence for hand raising?Hopefully, it is teacher attention.Because teacher attention is controlled by the teacher, there is no need for an artificial reinforcer, such as tokens or points.When Eric raises his hand, the teacher just needs to be sure that she provides the attention.As we saw earlier, if the teacher does not provide attention for hand raising it won’t continue.So there is need for extra vigilance by the teacher as the intervention is begun.Tips:Lead participants through the questions above.
44Positive Reinforcement !This slide contains a Video!Segment 8Facilitator Script:Listen to the team discuss positive reinforcement for Eric.Note that they rule out the use of artificial reinforcers because the natural reinforcer is under control of the teacher.Tips:Play the video by clicking on it.Prompt participants to attend to the artificial reinforcement ideas that were rejected -- not necessary because teacher controls natural reinforcers.
45Positive Consequences for Replacement Behavior Facilitator Script:As you can see in the Team Meeting Record, the team has decided that the prompts they provide will be sufficient to encourage Eric’s use of hand raising.Because the behavior allows Eric to gain access to the natural reinforcer of teacher attention, they will not use any artificial reinforcers.However, they have decided that the immediate delivery of attention is artificial and must be faded over time.In addition, although they have rejected artificial reinforcers, they have noted that a system for delivery of such is in place, if needed.Tips:Prompt participants to notice how the form is completed, including a note about an existing artificial reinforcement system for use if needed.
46Consequences-Problem Behavior Responses that follow problem behaviorGoal: Decrease problem behavior occurrenceFive RulesUse the least amount necessaryPre-plan, teach, be consistentUse only when supports are in place to reinforce replacement behaviorDefeat function of problem behaviorExamine plan if consequences are not workingFacilitator Script:Negative consequences, or punishment, consists of events that follow behavior that reduce the likelihood that it will occur in the future.There are five important rules to consider when using punishment.First, use the least amount necessary to reduce the problem behavior.Second, teach the student to expect consistent delivery of the consequence if he/she engages in the behavior, then be consistent in following through.Third, use only when a system is in place to reinforce desired replacement behavior.Fourth, be sure that instances of problem behavior do not lead to its old outcomes (the desired function).And fifth, when punishment isn’t working, examine other elements of the plan before simply adding more negative consequences.Tips:Prompt participants to consider situations in which negative consequences in their schools do or do not fit these rules.
47ConsequencesWhat consequences can be used if Eric forgets to raise his hand?How should the teacher respond or what should she do so that she is no longer reinforcing problem behavior?Hint: Think about the function of Eric’s behavior and how the teacher usually responds?Facilitator Script:Negative consequences, or punishment, consists of events that follow behavior that reduce the likelihood that it will occur in the future.There are five important rules to consider when using punishment.First, use the least amount necessary to reduce the problem behavior.Second, teach the student to expect consistent delivery of the consequence if he/she engages in the behavior, then be consistent in following through.Third, use only when a system is in place to reinforce desired replacement behavior.Fourth, be sure that instances of problem behavior do not lead to its old outcomes (the desired function).And fifth, when punishment isn’t working, examine other elements of the plan before simply adding more negative consequences.Tips:Prompt participants to consider situations in which negative consequences in their schools do or do not fit these rules.
48!This slide contains a Video! Consequences!This slide contains a Video!Segment 9Facilitator Script:Listen to the team discuss negative consequences for Eric. Note that they decide to go with ignoring but also realize that it may prove unrealistic and insufficient.Tips:Play the video by clicking on it.Prompt participants to attend to the fact that team members discuss the possibility of ignoring as a natural negative consequence may be insufficient and may require more intrusive procedures.
49Negative Consequences for Problem Behavior Facilitator Script:Notice on the Meeting Record that the counselor has listed more than one response to noise making.The team has come up with a series of possible responses to noise making.Each is slightly more intrusive and is used only when the simpler strategy proves ineffective.But each of the strategies was developed with the idea of making certain that Eric does not get teacher attention for noise making behavior.Tips:Note that the team developed a second level of consequence should ignoring prove too difficult or unsuccessful.
50Evaluate - How will you know if it works? What do we want and how will we know if it works?Measure behavior changeTarget criteria for successful performanceFacilitator Script:The final two steps of the initial intervention plan involve monitoring the behavior and evaluating the plan.Although a thorough description of measurement and goal setting are beyond the scope of this module, an example of the team’s discussion and outcomes is provided.The first step is to determine what it is that is being measured and how that measurement will take place.Then, the team must write an objective that sets forth a criteria for success that can be measured by the planned measurement system.Measurement can be accomplished by considering five simple steps.First, consider what it is about the behavior in question that is important to know.Second, determine the simplest form of data that will provide that information.Third, consider the simplest way to gather that data.Fourth, determine how data collection will occur.Fifth, decide how data will be summarized.Tips:Evaluation involves measurement and setting a criteria for success. The criteria for success is written in the form of a behavioral objective that is used to evaluate the plan.
51Monitoring and Objectives !This slide contains a Video!Segment 10Facilitator Script:Watch the team discuss the issue of measurement.Note that they decide that measurement needn’t be done constantly.Rather, they select the times during which behavior is of concern and then sample measures from those times.Often, decisions about measurement strategies may take place outside of the team meeting and may occur between those who will mainly be involved in the measurement.Ms. Andrews is correct that monitoring of behavior need only take place during the conditions in which that behavior has been a problem.Of course, if a problem behavior occurs anywhere in the school, then monitoring will need to throughout the day in all settings the student to which the student goes.Tips:Play the video by clicking it.Prompt participants to suggest monitoring systems for Eric.
52Identify Target/Objective of Intervention During 80% of opportunities by the end of the quarterEric will raise his hand and wait quietly for teacher attentionDuring independent work times in the classroom or library!This slide contains an Animation!Facilitator Script:After further discussion, Mr. Jung and Ms. Smith agree that they would like to see Eric raise his hand during 80% of opportunities by the end of the quarter.This level of performance is still not as strong as they eventually would like to see.However, they decide that this level of performance would be a huge improvement for Eric and his success would help him to feel better about himself.They used the Objective section of the Team Meeting Record to record their agreements and wrote a complete instructional objective for Eric.Tips:Call attention to the fact that the objective is written by pulling in information from earlier parts of the form.Discuss and ask participants to guess at conditions and behavior information.Then click once for each objective to appear.
53Evaluation Facilitator Script: The plan for measuring Eric’s behavior is recorded on the form and the team will go forth and measure Eric’s behavior as agreed.The purpose of monitoring Eric’s behavior is to track his progress and evaluate the success of the plan.In order to make this evaluation simple, Ms. Smith determines the percent of opportunities in which Eric currently is raising his hand so that a clear objective for future performance can be developed.Using the new measurement strategy for a few days, Ms. Smith determines that Eric typically raises his hand during 20% of opportunities.Tips:Prompt the participants to describe the associated forms, materials, and ongoing support the teacher might require to successfully collect the data.For participants with additional experience in this area, consider providing information about treatment integrity and inter-observer reliability.
55Follow-Up Keep it! Stop and Problem- solve Identify additional needs Raise the barFade promptsCelebrate!Stop and Problem- solveReview function statementRe-teach behaviorAdd prompts or cuesIdentify prerequisitesMake changes to planConsider more intensive processFacilitator Script:Lastly, the team decides that they will again meet to discuss Eric’s progress at the end of the quarter.Mr. Jung will follow up weekly with Ms. Smith to see how well the plan is working.When they meet they will evaluate the plan and make decisions about how to proceed.If the plan is working they can decide to move to the next prioritized need, focus on a new phase of learning, fade prompts, or move training to a less restrictive setting or condition.If the plan is determined to be ineffective, then the team can decide to go back and teach some prerequisite skills, re-teach a critical skill component, increase prompts and cues, decrease the criterion for success, or teach a new replacement behavior.Tips:Stress that decisions are made based on collected data and feedback from the teacher, others, and also Eric.
56Review We have covered the following topics: Completing a functional assessmentDetermining the function of behaviorDetermining a functional replacement behaviorMaking instructional decisionsCreating effective instructional environmentsResponding to desired and undesired behaviorsMeasuring progressFacilitator Script:We have covered a great deal of material today.Keep in mind that completing a functional assessment and determining the function of the behavior are the essential starting points for intervention planning.Also remember that a functional replacement behavior should be incompatible with the problem behavior, serve the same function as the problem behavior, and be more relevant, effective, and efficient than the problem behavior.Next the team should develop a plan for teaching the replacement behavior to the student.Consider alterations in the environment that will reduce the likelihood of failure and increase the chances of success.It should be made clear how staff should respond to both desired and undesired behaviors.Finally, the team should develop the simplest possible method for measuring student progress.Tips:Ask if there are any questions at this point.
57ERASE – A Case Example Feelhaver Elementary, Fort Dodge Kim Bodholdt, CounselorSusan Winter, Classroom Teacher
58Case Example Student: Liz Team Members: Initial Behavior of Concern: Classroom teacherSpecial education teacherSchool counselorAssistant principalInitial Behavior of Concern:Inappropriate noise makingExcessive movement at inappropriate timesInvasion of personal spaceDoing the opposite of what the teacher asks or classroom rules
59Case Example - ABC Antecedents – most likely When Liz is being ignored or not receiving attentionWhen other students are given positive acknowledgementAntecedents – least likelyOne-on-one adult attentionWhen being redirectedConsequences:Access to attention from peers and adultsFunction of Behavior:Gain teacher and/or peer attention
60Case Example – Predictable Explanation of Behavior General AntecedentsProblem BehaviorsGeneral ConsequencesLiz not receiving direct attention or peers being highlighted for positivesLiz does the opposite of what is expectedReceives negative adult attention
61Case Example Hypothesis Statement: When Liz is not the center of attention, she engages in disruptive behavior to gain teacher and/or peer attention
62Case Example Replacement Behavior: Instruction: Liz will raise her hand when she wishes to speak.Liz will follow directions the first time given.Instruction:Teacher will teach replacement behavior to entire class.All teachers will use the strategy.
63Case ExampleSupport:Liz will have a clip board with a bucket filler bucket coloring sheet with 15 hearts. Each time she exhibits the replacement behavior, she can fill in a heart.Liz will watch a video clip of expected behaviors (sitting, raising her hand)Liz will have built in positive attention as follows:10 minutes in the morning with the foster grandma5 minutes in the middle of the day with Julie H. (reading para)30 minute rest time in the library with Ms. Moser (library para)10 minutes at the end of the day with Merita(reading para). During that time, Liz will share her bucket filler sheet and what she did to fill in the hearts.
64Case Example Positive Consequences: Negative Consequences: Natural: positive attention from adultsArtificial: fill bucket, positive attention from 4 different adults built into daily scheduleNegative Consequences:Neutral voice toneState replacement behavior to whole class
65Case Example Measurement: Behavioral Objective: Use of replacement behavior measured by number of hearts colored on bucket filler sheetProblem behavior tracked by a clickerBehavioral Objective:Within the school setting, Liz will raise her hand and follow classroom rules and expectations, as measured by 15 circles filled in each day.
66Case Example – Follow Up Data ReviewLiz is averaging 7.8 negative marks per day.Behavior of Concern: AggressionLiz’s behaviors have increased in intensity, most specifically physical and verbal aggression (eating erasers, blocking classmates in the closet).This trend in data indicates that Liz is not filling her need for attention (peer attention) through previous behaviors.
67Case Example Parent Concerns Mom is uncomfortable sharing negative information with Liz about her school day.Team felt it was necessary to communicate the physical aggression with mom.An in-home counselor is working with Liz’s mom on parenting skills.
68Case Example Intervention Decision Utilize Liz’s in-home counselor to communicate about behaviorMrs. B. will contact the counselor and share the most recent behavioral data and any changes we are making to Liz’s intervention.Referrals will be written for the physical aggression and verbal aggression incidents.Information about these referrals will be communicated home through the office, rather than the classroom teacher.
69Case Example Other Intervention Changes Mrs. B. and Mrs. W. will adapt Liz’s current bucket filler sheet so that her new goal is 8 hearts a day.Structure a time each day that Liz can take a friend and work with Mrs. M. to help fill her peer bucket.The intervention with Julie H. is going well and will be continued.
70Case Example During remainder of Kindergarten year: Artificial reinforcement was faded by increasing number of hearts needed to earn rewardSlowly reduced amount of adult attention providedBy end of year, no supports neededLiz currently in 1st gradeNo additional supports being provided
72ResourcesLiaupsin, C. J., Scott, T. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2006). Functional Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Planning: A Simplified Team Process: Facilitator’s Guide CD- ROM. Longmont, CO: Sopris West