Presentation on theme: "Reading Instruction for Students with Dyslexia Developing Reading Fluency in Learning Support and Mainstream Settings Ellen Reynor Special Education."— Presentation transcript:
1Reading Instruction for Students with Dyslexia Developing Reading Fluency in Learning Support and Mainstream Settings Ellen Reynor Special Education Dept. St. Patricks College
2Important Questions What is fluency? Why is it important? What types of instruction helps students develop fluency?Managing fluency in different settingsHow can students progress in fluency be monitoredby teachers and students?Assessment issues
3Why has there been a neglect of Reading Fluency? The emphasis has been traditionally on single word reading and decoding skills (Liberman & Shankweiler (1991) for a review)Emphasis on Round Robin reading (Kuhn,2004)Popular reading programmes do not foster reading fluency in any formal or systematic way (Kame’enui & Simmons, 2001)Increasing decoding instruction would lead to improved fluency (Fleisher, Jenkins, & Pany, 1980).
4Struggling readers who don’t keep pace with their peers, have significantly fewer opportunities to read connected text than do other students (Allington, 1983; Stanovich, 1986).‘… they receive ever greater doses of instruction focusing on word-recognition strategies at the expense of working with connected text. It is at this point that they should be exposed to a broad range of connected text at both their independent and instructional reading level’ (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003 Rasinski, 1989).
5Phonemic awareness and Phonics ‘Direct instruction in phonological awareness and phonics leads to improved decoding and word identification in poor readers, but yields only minimal gains in reading fluency’(Foorman et al., 1997; Scanlon & Vellutino,1996; Torgesen, Rashotte & Wagner, 1997)‘Reading Fluency needs to be taught’Report of the National Reading Panel (NICHD, 2000)
6Round Robin ReadingIt is too brief to have any effect (Stallings & Krasavage, 1986).An outmoded practice of ‘calling on students to read one after the other’ (Harris & Hodges, 1995).‘An ineffective strategy, and also one that actively damages learners’ comprehension of text and delays their fluency development’ (Ash, Kuhn & Waldorf, 2009).A study of dysfluent readers found that students were exposed to minimal practice in the reading of connected text as a result of the turn taking aspect of RRR. (Allington, 1977, 1980)RRR has been found to be damaging to students social and emotional growth (Opitz & Rasinski, 1998).Although it is a practice that no authority recommends, even the writers of reading programmes, it is actively used even by some of the more savvy teachers of today (Cunningham & Allington, 1999).
7Unassisted method/Silent reading The Report of the National Reading Panel (2001):Substantial evidence to support the use of Repeated Reading procedures but raised questions about the use of wide independent reading.Little or no gains in reading achievementNo feedback – practice errorsCan go off-taskFor proficient readers at ‘reading to learn’ stage (Chall, 1996)
8What Is Reading Fluency? Fluency refers to the ability to read text aloud with sufficient speed, accuracy, and expression. (National Reading Panel, 2000).There’s a significant and positive relationship between reading fluency and comprehension (Pinnell et al., 1995).‘Reading fluency refers to effective and efficient word recognition skills that permit a reader to construct the meaning of the text. It is manifested in accurate, rapid, and expressive oral reading that is applied during, and makes possible reading comprehension’ (Pikulski & Chard, 2005).
9Four Dimensions of Reading Fluency Surface construct of fluency vs Deep construct of fluencyOral reading accuracyUse of prosody and expressionComprehensionOral reading rate
10'Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling. (Rose Report, 2009).‘Dyslexia is evident when accurate and fluent reading develop very incompletely and with great difficulty’ (BPS, 1999).‘Many adolescents and adults continue to have difficulties with fluency long after they become accurate word readers’ (Shaywitz, 2003).The NRP (2000) named ‘fluency’ an essential component of reading instruction
11Reading Fluency and Comprehension Reading fluency makes unique contributions to comprehension after accounting for word accuracy (Jenkins et al., 2003a; Meisinger, Schwanenflugel & Woo, 2009)Measures of reading fluency whether reading rate or prosodic reading are significantly associated with measures of comprehension and reading proficiency (Rasinski, 2004).Reading fluency instruction results in overall reading achievement (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000; Rasinski & Hoffman, 2003).
12Reading FluencyReading fluency may be a key concern for up to 90% of children with comprehension problems (Duke, Pressley & Hilden, 2003).60%-70% of children with fluency problems have comprehension problemsEvidence that measures of reading fluency are more sensitive to detecting reading difficulties than word reading measures (Nation & Snowling, 1997).
13Incorporating Fluency into the School Day Equal amounts of time (day/fortnight)Adequate amount of instructional time for reading and writingEnsure all aspects are being taughtProvide on-going monitoringThe Major components of readingComprehensionWordKnowledgeWritingPhonological awarenessPhonicsVocabularyFluencyComprehension(NRP, 2000)FluencyShanahan, 2006
14Use of prosody and expression What is Prosody?Markers of prosodic reading(Dowhower, 1991)Pausal IntrusionsLength of phrasesAppropriate phrasingIntonationStressUse of prosody and expression
15Specific behaviours and or at-risk indicators of problems with fluency Inappropriate/overextended pauses that are clear breaks in the flow of readingSound-outs where the reader consciously works at figuring out a words pronunciationMultiple attempts at a word (including repetitionsof its correct pronunciationRun-ons in which the reader fails to pauseappropriately to mark a phrase or pause boundaryPatterns of stress or intonation that are inconsistentwith phrase or clause structure
16Engaging Teachers in Examining fluency (Rasinski & Zutell, 2006) Teachers listen to children’s oral readings at instructional level (without scripts in the beginning)Teachers listen to oral reading with copy of text – mark dysfluent behaviours, rate the fluency of the reading on a scale, discuss.Word by word readingStressing MFS Rating requires a holistic approachPunctuationIntonationThey are subjective but reliable predictors of standardised tests
17Multidimensional Fluency Scale (Rasinski 1993) Use the following rubric (1-4) to rate reader fluency in the areas of expression and volume, phrasing, smoothness, and pace.EXPRESSION AND VOLUME1. Reads words as if simply to get them out. Little sense of trying to make text sound like natural language. Tends to read in a quiet voice.2. Begins to use voice to make text sound like natural language in some areas of the text but not in others. Focus remains largely on pronouncing the word. Still reads in a quiet voice.3. Make text sound like natural language throughout the better part of the passage. Occasionally slips into expressionless reading. Voice volume is generally appropriate throughout the text.4. Reads with good expression and enthusiasm throughout the text. Varies expression and volume to match his or her interpretation of the passage.PHRASING1. Reads in a monotone with little sense of boundaries; frequently reads word-by-word.2. Frequently reads in two- and three-word phrases, giving the impression of choppy reading; improper stress and intonation fail to mark ends of sentences and clauses.3. Reads with a mixture of run-ons, mid-sentence pauses for breath, and some choppiness, reasonable stress and intonation.4. Generally reads with good phrasing, mostly in clause and sentence units, with adequate attention to expression.
181. Reads slowly and laboriously. 2. Reads moderately slowly. SMOOTHNESS1.Makes frequent extended pauses, hesitations, false starts, sound-outs, repetitions, and/or multiple attempts.2. Experiences several “rough spots” in text where extended pauses or hesitations are more frequent and disruptive.3. Occasionally breaks smooth rhythm because of difficulties with specific words and/or structures.4. Generally reads smoothly with some breaks, but resolves word and structure difficulties quickly, usually through self-correction.PACE1. Reads slowly and laboriously.2. Reads moderately slowly.3. Reads with an uneven mixture of fast and slow pace.4. Consistently reads at conversational pace; appropriate rate throughout reading.Scores range from Generally, scores below 8 indicate that fluency may be a concern. Scores of 8 or above indicate that the student is making good progress in fluency.
19EXPLICIT TEACHING OF PROSODY Example of phrase boundaries (chunking)My favourite season of the year / is summer.// I am so glad we don’t have school / in the summer.// I would rather spend my time / swimming,/ playing/ and reading.//PunctuationABCD? EFG! HI? JKL. MN? OPQ. RST!StressingI am going home. I am going home. I amgoing home.
201. Mr. Twigg the head teacher began to talk. 2. His sharp gaze scanned the children as he spoke.3. “What on earth were 6B doing?”4. Their eyes were all over the place.5. They were looking everywhere except where they should be looking.6. “ 6B have you got a problem?”7. A slow chorus came rumbling back. “No Mr. Twigg”.8. “What have I just been saying to you”?9. “Tracey Grant you answer”.10. Tracey swallowed as the whole school turned to her.11. Even Adam turned to look and as he did he caught a very slight movement high up on the wall of the hall.
211. Mr. Twigg/ the head teacher/ began to talk. 2. His sharp gaze scanned the children/as he spoke.3. “What on earth were 6B doing?”4. Their eyes /were all over the place.5. They were looking everywhere /except where they should be looking.6. “ 6B/ have you got a problem?”7. A slow chorus /came rumbling back.// “No Mr. Twigg”.8. “What have I just been saying to you”?9. “Tracey Grant/ you answer”.10. Tracey swallowed/ as the whole school turned to her.11. Even Adam turned to look /and as he did /he caught a very slight movement /high up on the wall of the hall.
22Mr. Twigg the head teacher began to talk Mr. Twigg the head teacher began to talk. His sharp gaze scanned the children as he spoke. What on earth were 6B doing? Their eyes were all over the place. They were looking everywhere except where they should be looking. “ 6B have you got a problem?” A slow chorus came rumbling back. “No Mr. Twigg”. “What have I just been saying to you”? “Tracey Grant you answer”. Tracey swallowed as the whole school turned to her. Even Adam turned to look, and as he did he caught a very slight movement high up on the wall of the hall. Adam froze. “Um” said Tracey. “You said ‘Good morning everyone’ Mr. Twigg”. The rest of the school laughed.
23Teaching Reading Fluency Wide reading vs Deep readingRepeated paired readingRepeated readingtechniqueFluencyDevelopment lesson (FDL)Assisted Repeated ReadingFluency-orientedInstruction (FORI)ReadersTheatreEcho readingChoral reading
24The Repeated Reading Technique Automaticity Theory (Samuels, 1974) The student rereads a meaningful passage of words several times until a satisfactory level of fluency is achieved.
25Research-based best practices Use instructional / upper-instructional level passages / with support –ZPD / GRRRead 3 to 4 times max.Give corrective feedback on word errors (NICHD, 2000; (Snow, Burns a& Griffin, 1998)Model text (Blevins, 2001; Rasinski, 2003; Schreiber, 1980)Must read passage aloud to an adult or partnerDon’t supply correct word unless the child stopsUse a criterion e.g phrase boundaries, meaningUse a variety of different types of textsPlenty of practice using progressively more difficult texts (Chard et al.,2002; Meyer & Felton, 1999)
26Accuracy and Readability levels (Good, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 2001) Words Read CorrectlyIndependent Level96%-100%Instructional Level90%-95%Frustration LevelLess than 90%
27A foreboding, clammy and fearful, came into her heart as if, along with the visitor whose name was so strange yet somehow familiar, some menace had slipped into her life. And she wished-so hard it frightened her- that she had never fetched Mo, and Dustfinger had stayed outside until the rain washed over him.The Stranger Comesby Cornelia Funke
29Assessing Fluency What am I assessing? How do I assess each component? Reading accuracyReadingrateProsodyUse a passage of words of instructional level textTime the child reading the passage for 1 minuteMark on the text at 1 minuteMark the uncorrected errorsDetermine accuracy by dividing the words read correctly (WCPM) by the total number of words read.This number will be a percentageUse a Multidimensional Fluency Scale to assess the child’s prosody reading a passage of instructional text.RECORD
30Year: Class: Reading Fluency Record Term: NameDateIncorrectWords (perMinute)Correct Words perMinuteFluencyScale scorePassagedetails
31Reading Fluency Record Name:YearIncorrectWPMCorrectFluencyScale ScoreSeptDecMarchJuneCan do miscue analysis for information on child’s reading strategiesView norms for guide to what child’s CWPM rate should be
33Research-based Repeated Reading strategies for the class Fluency Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) (Stahl, et al., 2003)Peer-assisted learning strategies (PALS) Fuchs, Fuchs, Burish, 2000).Fluency Development Lesson (FDL) (Rasinski, Padek, Linek & Sturtevant, 1994).Fluency Development Workshop (FDW) (Reutzel, 2003)Paired Repeated Reading (Eldridge 1990; Koskinen & Blum, 1986; Topping, 1987)Reader’s Theatre
34Peer Repeated Readings Repeated reading without the stopwatches! Students pair up Students read a text that has been read in class previously Pick a short passage words and read silently first 3 Readings followTaking turns each student reads and assesses his own readingAfter 2nd reading student again self-assesses and partner comments on improvementThen student reads a final time commenting on how his reading has improved and listening to partner commentsSwop roles
35Importance of Metafluency Instruction (Hoffman, 2003) Focus on accuracy, rate, expression is insufficientChildren should be self-regulating as they’re readingThey must know what fluency is not just how it soundsElements, concepts, language of fluencyPhrasing, stress, expression, reading rate, accuracySo that they can monitor, fix, and improve it
36Fluency Rubric DATE: good Word Accuracy needs practice improving very goodRate too slowtoo fastjust rightExpression needs practicePhrasing word by word3 words at a time5+ words at a time
37Paired Repeated Reading with a 2nd class using the story book ‘Curious George’ Teacher read (modelled) and children read alongChildren were paired upSelect a short segment (30-150) each to read to partnerFocus of segment was something interesting they learned about GeorgeEach child read the segment 3 times to partnerAfter each reading, the reader rated his improvement on a scaleThen the listener commented on how their partners reading had improved.
38It fostered expertise in reading and learning They interact with text and read various segmentsRead several segments to find right oneIt helped increase their content knowledgeThey read and listened 3 timesAll came up with important ideas about GeorgeIt increased strategy knowledgeLearned about reading as a strategy for acquiring informationIn a co-operative setting, they learned how their reading had improvedMotivation/differing ability levels
39Pointers To Help You With Fluency Becoming a fluent reader is an important part of becoming a good reader. In order to become a fluent reader you need to:Read accurately (without mistakes)2. Vary the speed according to your purposes and how difficult the text is for you3. Read with volume, expression, phrasing, and smoothness4. Remember the important ideas from your readingPractice doing these things
40Fix-up Your Fluency! Accuracy Slow your reading down when text is difficultLook at the words you didn’t read on the pageListen to see if the word you said makes senseTry rereading the sentenceRateGo slower when the text is difficultExpressionTry to read 3 or more words before pausingRead to the comma or full stop if possibleRead so that you sound like someone talking
41Fluency RubricAccurate readingSpeed or RateExpression
43Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) Teachers assign partners to match high and low- needs studentsPartners (in a series of turns) read, reread, retell the text. The reader reads/ the coach listens and comments positively, then together they work to ask questions.Beyond 1st class there are 3 strategies to support fluency and comprehension:Partner readingParagraph shrinkingPrediction relayRank children 1-20 on a list-1 being the best reader and 20 being the weakest.Divide list in half through the middle.Match 1 with 112 with 12/3 with 13 etc
44FDW Daily Routine (Reutzel, 2003) Teacher explanation and modelling of the elements of fluent reading (5-7 minutes)Guided group or individual Repeated Reading practice (10-15 minutes)Group and/or individual assessment and progress monitoring (5-7 minutes)Gradual release of responsibilityLesson time: 30 minutes
45Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) Was designed for reading and content area instruction.Students repeatedly read a text – story or science, history, several times over the course of the week.The text is first read aloud by the teacher with students following along with their own copyDiscuss story for comprehensionDuring week studentsFollowed by extension activities as part of literacy curriculumEcho readChoral readPartner readRead at home
46Fluency-based classroom reading (FORI) Read story to classOption: Echo readingDiscuss storyChildren read story at homeOption: Children learn one section of the textOption: Children read story at home 2-3 timesPartner reading of storyOption: Children read story as playChildren do written activities in pairs and class
48Readers TheatreReaders TheatreA rehearsed group presentation of a script that is read aloud and not memorised
49Curriculum based Readers Theatre 5-day plan ScriptsPlaysMonologuesSongsExtractsPoemsWrite your ownCurriculum based Readers Theatre5-day plan
50Focus on literate behaviours not ProcedureReadModelRehearsePerform script in handProps, costumes, gesturesFocus on literate behaviours notliteracy skillsA Comprehensive Guide to Readers Theatre by Black & Stave
51Summing UpFluency results from a complex interrelationship of processes that is more than the sum of these components. Teachers who make fluency a part of their comprehensive reading program and implement instruction with engaging materials help students solve the reading puzzle.