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Reading Instruction for Students with Dyslexia Developing Reading Fluency in Learning Support and Mainstream Settings Ellen Reynor Special Education Dept.

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Presentation on theme: "Reading Instruction for Students with Dyslexia Developing Reading Fluency in Learning Support and Mainstream Settings Ellen Reynor Special Education Dept."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reading Instruction for Students with Dyslexia Developing Reading Fluency in Learning Support and Mainstream Settings Ellen Reynor Special Education Dept. St. Patricks College

2 Important Questions  What is fluency?  Why is it important?  What types of instruction helps students develop fluency?  Managing fluency in different settings  How can students progress in fluency be monitored by teachers and students?  Assessment issues

3 Why has there been a neglect of Reading Fluency?  The emphasis has been traditionally on single word reading and decoding skills (Liberman & Shankweiler (1991) for a review)  Emphasis on Round Robin reading (Kuhn,2004)  Popular reading programmes do not foster reading fluency in any formal or systematic way (Kame’enui & Simmons, 2001)  Increasing decoding instruction would lead to improved fluency (Fleisher, Jenkins, & Pany, 1980).

4 Struggling readers who don’t keep pace with their peers, have significantly fewer opportunities to read connected text than do other students (Allington, 1983; Stanovich, 1986). ‘… they receive ever greater doses of instruction focusing on word-recognition strategies at the expense of working with connected text. It is at this point that they should be exposed to a broad range of connected text at both their independent and instructional reading level’ (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003 Rasinski, 1989).

5 Phonemic awareness and Phonics ‘Direct instruction in phonological awareness and phonics leads to improved decoding and word identification in poor readers, but yields only minimal gains in reading fluency’ (Foorman et al., 1997; Scanlon & Vellutino, 1996; Torgesen, Rashotte & Wagner, 1997) ‘ Reading Fluency needs to be taught’ Report of the National Reading Panel (NICHD, 2000)

6 It is too brief to have any effect (Stallings & Krasavage, 1986). An outmoded practice of ‘calling on students to read one after the other’ (Harris & Hodges, 1995). ‘An ineffective strategy, and also one that actively damages learners’ comprehension of text and delays their fluency development’ (Ash, Kuhn & Waldorf, 2009). A study of dysfluent readers found that students were exposed to minimal practice in the reading of connected text as a result of the turn taking aspect of RRR. ( Allington, 1977, 1980) RRR has been found to be damaging to students social and emotional growth (Opitz & Rasinski, 1998). Although it is a practice that no authority recommends, even the writers of reading programmes, it is actively used even by some of the more savvy teachers of today (Cunningham & Allington, 1999). Round Robin Reading

7 Unassisted method/Silent reading The Report of the National Reading Panel (2001): Substantial evidence to support the use of Repeated Reading procedures but raised questions about the use of wide independent reading. Little or no gains in reading achievement No feedback – practice errors Can go off-task For proficient readers at ‘reading to learn’ stage (Chall, 1996)

8 What Is Reading Fluency? Fluency refers to the ability to read text aloud with sufficient speed, accuracy, and expression. (National Reading Panel, 2000). There’s a significant and positive relationship between reading fluency and comprehension (Pinnell et al., 1995). ‘Reading fluency refers to effective and efficient word recognition skills that permit a reader to construct the meaning of the text. It is manifested in accurate, rapid, and expressive oral reading that is applied during, and makes possible reading comprehension’ (Pikulski & Chard, 2005).

9 Four Dimensions of Reading Fluency Surface construct of fluency vs Deep construct of fluency Oral reading accuracy Oral reading rate Use of prosody and expression Comprehension

10 'Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling. (Rose Report, 2009). ‘Dyslexia is evident when accurate and fluent reading develop very incompletely and with great difficulty’ (BPS, 1999). ‘Many adolescents and adults continue to have difficulties with fluency long after they become accurate word readers’ (Shaywitz, 2003). The NRP (2000) named ‘fluency’ an essential component of reading instruction

11 Reading Fluency and Comprehension Reading fluency makes unique contributions to comprehension after accounting for word accuracy (Jenkins et al., 2003a; Meisinger, Schwanenflugel & Woo, 2009) Measures of reading fluency whether reading rate or prosodic reading are significantly associated with measures of comprehension and reading proficiency (Rasinski, 2004). Reading fluency instruction results in overall reading achievement (Kuhn & Stahl, 2000; Rasinski & Hoffman, 2003).

12 Reading Fluency Reading fluency may be a key concern for up to 90% of children with comprehension problems (Duke, Pressley & Hilden, 2003). 60%-70% of children with fluency problems have comprehension problems Evidence that measures of reading fluency are more sensitive to detecting reading difficulties than word reading measures (Nation & Snowling, 1997).

13 Incorporating Fluency into the School Day Equal amounts of time (day/fortnight) Adequate amount of instructional time for reading and writing Ensure all aspects are being taught Provide on-going monitoring The Major components of reading Phonological awareness Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension (NRP, 2000) Shanahan, 2006 Word Knowledge Fluency Comprehension Writing

14 What is Prosody? Markers of prosodic reading (Dowhower, 1991) Pausal Intrusions Length of phrases Appropriate phrasing Intonation Stress Use of prosody and expression

15 Specific behaviours and or at-risk indicators of problems with fluency Inappropriate/overextended pauses that are clear breaks in the flow of reading Sound-outs where the reader consciously works at figuring out a words pronunciation Multiple attempts at a word (including repetitions of its correct pronunciation Run-ons in which the reader fails to pause appropriately to mark a phrase or pause boundary Patterns of stress or intonation that are inconsistent with phrase or clause structure

16 Engaging Teachers in Examining fluency (Rasinski & Zutell, 2006) Teachers listen to children’s oral readings at instructional level (without scripts in the beginning) Teachers listen to oral reading with copy of text – mark dysfluent behaviours, rate the fluency of the reading on a scale, discuss. Word by word reading Stressing MFS Rating requires a holistic approach Punctuation Intonation They are subjective but reliable predictors of standardised tests

17 Multidimensional Fluency Scale (Rasinski 1993) Use the following rubric (1-4) to rate reader fluency in the areas of expression and volume, phrasing, smoothness, and pace. EXPRESSION AND VOLUME 1. Reads words as if simply to get them out. Little sense of trying to make text sound like natural language. Tends to read in a quiet voice. 2. Begins to use voice to make text sound like natural language in some areas of the text but not in others. Focus remains largely on pronouncing the word. Still reads in a quiet voice. 3. Make text sound like natural language throughout the better part of the passage. Occasionally slips into expressionless reading. Voice volume is generally appropriate throughout the text. 4. Reads with good expression and enthusiasm throughout the text. Varies expression and volume to match his or her interpretation of the passage. PHRASING 1. Reads in a monotone with little sense of boundaries; frequently reads word-by-word. 2. Frequently reads in two- and three-word phrases, giving the impression of choppy reading; improper stress and intonation fail to mark ends of sentences and clauses. 3. Reads with a mixture of run-ons, mid-sentence pauses for breath, and some choppiness, reasonable stress and intonation. 4. Generally reads with good phrasing, mostly in clause and sentence units, with adequate attention to expression.

18 SMOOTHNESS 1.Makes frequent extended pauses, hesitations, false starts, sound-outs, repetitions, and/or multiple attempts. 2. Experiences several “rough spots” in text where extended pauses or hesitations are more frequent and disruptive. 3. Occasionally breaks smooth rhythm because of difficulties with specific words and/or structures. 4. Generally reads smoothly with some breaks, but resolves word and structure difficulties quickly, usually through self-correction. PACE 1. Reads slowly and laboriously. 2. Reads moderately slowly. 3. Reads with an uneven mixture of fast and slow pace. 4. Consistently reads at conversational pace; appropriate rate throughout reading. Scores range from Generally, scores below 8 indicate that fluency may be a concern. Scores of 8 or above indicate that the student is making good progress in fluency.

19 EXPLICIT TEACHING OF PROSODY Example of phrase boundaries (chunking) My favourite season of the year / is summer.// I am so glad we don’t have school / in the summer.// I would rather spend my time / swimming,/ playing/ and reading.// Punctuation ABCD? EFG! HI? JKL. MN? OPQ. RST! Stressing I am going home. I am going home. I am going home.

20 1. Mr. Twigg the head teacher began to talk. 2. His sharp gaze scanned the children as he spoke. 3. “What on earth were 6B doing?” 4. Their eyes were all over the place. 5. They were looking everywhere except where they should be looking. 6. “ 6B have you got a problem?” 7. A slow chorus came rumbling back. “No Mr. Twigg”. 8. “What have I just been saying to you”? 9. “Tracey Grant you answer”. 10. Tracey swallowed as the whole school turned to her. 11. Even Adam turned to look and as he did he caught a very slight movement high up on the wall of the hall.

21 1. Mr. Twigg/ the head teacher/ began to talk. 2. His sharp gaze scanned the children/as he spoke. 3. “What on earth were 6B doing?” 4. Their eyes /were all over the place. 5. They were looking everywhere /except where they should be looking. 6. “ 6B/ have you got a problem?” 7. A slow chorus /came rumbling back.// “No Mr. Twigg”. 8. “What have I just been saying to you”? 9. “Tracey Grant/ you answer”. 10. Tracey swallowed/ as the whole school turned to her. 11. Even Adam turned to look /and as he did /he caught a very slight movement /high up on the wall of the hall.

22 Mr. Twigg the head teacher began to talk. His sharp gaze scanned the children as he spoke. What on earth were 6B doing? Their eyes were all over the place. They were looking everywhere except where they should be looking. “ 6B have you got a problem?” A slow chorus came rumbling back. “No Mr. Twigg”. “What have I just been saying to you”? “Tracey Grant you answer”. Tracey swallowed as the whole school turned to her. Even Adam turned to look, and as he did he caught a very slight movement high up on the wall of the hall. Adam froze. “Um” said Tracey. “You said ‘Good morning everyone’ Mr. Twigg”. The rest of the school laughed.

23 Teaching Reading Fluency  Wide reading vs Deep reading Repeated reading technique Echo reading Repeated paired reading Choral reading Fluency-oriented Instruction (FORI) Readers Theatre Fluency Development lesson (FDL)

24 The Repeated Reading Technique Automaticity Theory (Samuels, 1974) The student rereads a meaningful passage of words several times until a satisfactory level of fluency is achieved.

25 Research-based best practices Use instructional / upper-instructional level passages / with support –ZPD / GRR Read 3 to 4 times max. Give corrective feedback on word errors (NICHD, 2000; (Snow, Burns a& Griffin, 1998) Model text (Blevins, 2001; Rasinski, 2003; Schreiber, 1980) Must read passage aloud to an adult or partner Don’t supply correct word unless the child stops Use a criterion e.g phrase boundaries, meaning Use a variety of different types of texts Plenty of practice using progressively more difficult texts (Chard et al.,2002; Meyer & Felton, 1999)

26 Accuracy and Readability levels (Good, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 2001) Readability LevelsWords Read Correctly Independent Level96%-100% Instructional Level90%-95% Frustration LevelLess than 90%

27 A foreboding, clammy and fearful, came into her heart as if, along with the visitor whose name was so strange yet somehow familiar, some menace had slipped into her life. And she wished-so hard it frightened her- that she had never fetched Mo, and Dustfinger had stayed outside until the rain washed over him. The Stranger Comes by Cornelia Funke


29 Assessing Fluency What am I assessing? How do I assess each component? Reading accuracy Reading rate Prosody Use a passage of words of instructional level text Time the child reading the passage for 1 minute Mark on the text at 1 minute Mark the uncorrected errors Determine accuracy by dividing the words read correctly (WCPM) by the total number of words read. This number will be a percentage Use a Multidimensional Fluency Scale to assess the child’s prosody reading a passage of instructional text. RECORD

30 Year: Class:Reading Fluency Record Term: NameDateIncorrect Words (per Minute) Correct Words per Minute Fluency Scale score Passage details

31 Reading Fluency Record Name: Year Incorrect WPM Correct WPM Fluency Scale Score Sept Dec March June Can do miscue analysis for information on child’s reading strategies View norms for guide to what child’s CWPM rate should be


33 Research-based Repeated Reading strategies for the class Fluency Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) (Stahl, et al., 2003) Peer-assisted learning strategies (PALS) Fuchs, Fuchs, Burish, 2000). Fluency Development Lesson (FDL) (Rasinski, Padek, Linek & Sturtevant, 1994). Fluency Development Workshop (FDW) (Reutzel, 2003) Paired Repeated Reading (Eldridge 1990; Koskinen & Blum, 1986; Topping, 1987) Reader’s Theatre

34 Peer Repeated Readings Repeated reading without the stopwatches! Students pair up Students read a text that has been read in class previously Pick a short passage words and read silently first 3 Readings follow Taking turns each student reads and assesses his own reading After 2 nd reading student again self-assesses and partner comments on improvement Then student reads a final time commenting on how his reading has improved and listening to partner comments Swop roles

35 Importance of Metafluency Instruction (Hoffman, 2003) Focus on accuracy, rate, expression is insufficient Children should be self-regulating as they’re reading They must know what fluency is not just how it sounds Elements, concepts, language of fluency Phrasing, stress, expression, reading rate, accuracy So that they can monitor, fix, and improve it

36 Word Accuracy needs practice improving good very good Rate too slow too fast just right Expression needs practice good very good Phrasing word by word 3 words at a time 5+ words at a time Fluency Rubric DATE:

37 Paired Repeated Reading with a 2 nd class using the story book ‘Curious George ’ Teacher read (modelled) and children read along Children were paired up Select a short segment (30-150) each to read to partner Focus of segment was something interesting they learned about George Each child read the segment 3 times to partner After each reading, the reader rated his improvement on a scale Then the listener commented on how their partners reading had improved.

38 It fostered expertise in reading and learning They interact with text and read various segments Read several segments to find right one It helped increase their content knowledge They read and listened 3 times All came up with important ideas about George It increased strategy knowledge Learned about reading as a strategy for acquiring information In a co-operative setting, they learned how their reading had improved Motivation/differing ability levels

39 Pointers To Help You With Fluency Becoming a fluent reader is an important part of becoming a good reader. In order to become a fluent reader you need to: 1.Read accurately (without mistakes) 2. Vary the speed according to your purposes and how difficult the text is for you 3. Read with volume, expression, phrasing, and smoothness 4. Remember the important ideas from your reading Practice doing these things

40 Fix-up Your Fluency! Accuracy Slow your reading down when text is difficult Look at the words you didn’t read on the page Listen to see if the word you said makes sense Try rereading the sentence Rate Go slower when the text is difficult Expression Try to read 3 or more words before pausing Read to the comma or full stop if possible Read so that you sound like someone talking

41 Fluency Rubric Accurate reading Speed or Rate Expression


43 Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) Teachers assign partners to match high and low- needs students Partners (in a series of turns) read, reread, retell the text. The reader reads/ the coach listens and comments positively, then together they work to ask questions. Beyond 1 st class there are 3 strategies to support fluency and comprehension: o Partner reading o Paragraph shrinking o Prediction relay Rank children 1-20 on a list-1 being the best reader and 20 being the weakest. Divide list in half through the middle. Match 1 with 11 2 with 12/3 with 13 etc

44 FDW Daily Routine (Reutzel, 2003) Teacher explanation and modelling of the elements of fluent reading (5-7 minutes) Guided group or individual Repeated Reading practice (10-15 minutes) Group and/or individual assessment and progress monitoring (5-7 minutes) Gradual release of responsibility Lesson time: 30 minutes

45 Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) Was designed for reading and content area instruction. Students repeatedly read a text – story or science, history, several times over the course of the week. The text is first read aloud by the teacher with students following along with their own copy Discuss story for comprehension During week students Followed by extension activities as part of literacy curriculum Echo read Choral read Partner read Read at home

46 Fluency-based classroom reading (FORI) Read story to class Children read story at home Partner reading of story Children do written activities in pairs and class Option: Echo reading Discuss story Option: Children learn one section of the text Option: Children read story at home 2-3 times Option: Children read story as play

47 Fluency Assessment Model Multidimensional fluency scale Expression Assessment 1 Minute Reading Sample Accuracy Assessment 1 Minute Reading Sample Rate Assessment

48 Readers Theatre A rehearsed group presentation of a script that is read aloud and not memorised Readers Theatre

49 Scripts Plays Monologues Songs Extracts Poems Write your own Curriculum based Readers Theatre 5-day plan

50 Procedure Read Model Rehearse Perform script in hand Props, costumes, gestures Focus on literate behaviours not literacy skills A Comprehensive Guide to Readers Theatre by Black & Stave

51 Summing Up Fluency results from a complex interrelationship of processes that is more than the sum of these components. Teachers who make fluency a part of their comprehensive reading program and implement instruction with engaging materials help students solve the reading puzzle.

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