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MEANING Pathways to Comprehension Fluency Dr. Kath Glasswell Willemina Mostert.

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Presentation on theme: "MEANING Pathways to Comprehension Fluency Dr. Kath Glasswell Willemina Mostert."— Presentation transcript:

1 MEANING Pathways to Comprehension Fluency Dr. Kath Glasswell Willemina Mostert

2 What do you say fluency is? Reflect and Share What are your memories of learning to read in school? Did the teacher do anything to help you read fluently? If so, what did s/he do? Brainstorm a list of words or phrases that go with fluency. Create an open word sort by putting the words into categories. Think-Pair-Share What do you notice about what you and your colleagues think regarding fluency?

3 What is Fluency? Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately and quickly. When fluent readers read silently, they recognize words automatically. They group words quickly in ways that help them gain meaning from what they read. Fluent readers read aloud effortlessly and with expression. Their reading sounds natural as if they were speaking. (Ambruster, Lehr & Osborne, 2001)

4 Why is Fluency Important? Fluency is a necessary condition for skilled reading (Samuels, 1976-present, Rasinski, 2002) The more attention readers must give to identifying words, the less attention they have for thinking about what the text means (Foorman & Mehta, 2002) Fluency creates a bridge between words and meanings MEANI NG

5 The Big 3 of fluency Accurate word recognition Speed (reading rate) Phrasing and Expression

6 Accuracy Fluent readers recognise words effortlessly (they have a well developed bank of sight words or high frequency words). We call this Automatic Word Recognition (AWR). Fluent readers “solve” or ”figure out” unfamiliar words quickly by applying known rules and processes.

7 Speed Fluent readers read at a RATE that is conducive to THINKING! Fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding words and can focus on what the sentence means instead of the laborious task of figuring out each word. The reader can connect the ideas that are in the words!

8 Phrasing and Expression Fluent readers read with phrasing and expression - even in their heads, similar to authentic spoken language. They read whole phrases as one e.g Once upon a time or Now and again. Their voices rise and fall with the rhythms, and emotions, of the language. Fluent readers use the punctuation in the passage to signal pausing and expressive effect.

9 Your Turn... Turn to your partner You have 1-2 minutes to read the passage ‘Elliptical motion’. (unfamiliar Snr Physics text) Please rate your partner’s oral reading (1-5 scale) for accuracy, speed and phrasing and expression. Ask them to give you a quick retell of the main ideas in the passage. What did you notice?

10 FLUENCY is not a developmental stage. It is an adaptive, context- dependent process...and it can be taught. (NRP 2000, Topping 2006)

11 Building reading fluency There are four ways to build reading fluency: Model good oral reading: Read aloud to allow students to witness fluent reading – the expression and interpretation of characters/ content. Model the aesthetic and affective response to reading that is essential to the reading experience (Rosenblatt, 1978). Instil a love of reading to encourage them to read more. YOU ARE THEIR BEST MODEL! Provide oral support or assistance: provide support for students with a fluent rendition of the passage as they read alongside. Choral reading, paired reading, tape-assisted reading. (Rasinski, 2010)

12 Building reading fluency Offer plenty of opportunities for practice: practice is required to gain proficiency – wide and deep, oral and silent. Develop deep mastery of a passage before moving on. Develop confidence in particularly struggling readers. Repeated readings: repeated oral reading – poems, plays, songs silent reading – SSR/USSR Encourage Fluency through phrasing: model chunking a text into meaningful phrases to overcome word-by-word reading. Provide opportunities for students to witness change in meaning when there is change in emphasis. E.g. The principal said the teacher was the best in the region. (Rasinski, 2010)

13 How do I fit it all in?...with Powerful Practices Using a Powerful Practice ensures that the time away from the teacher is just as powerful as the time with the teacher A Powerful Practice is one that transcends the text and activity. Work smarter – not harder! Using Powerful Practices actively promotes the transfer of skills across contexts. Build fluency in all KLAs. Powerful Practices are:FLEXIBLE EVIDENCE BASED STUDENT CENTRED

14 Powerful Practices for Fluency 1.Poet’s Corner 2.Reader’s Theatre

15 Reader’s Theatre Flexible: Any level of text may be used with any group of readers. Scripts can be found online (reading or kids can write their own (e.g. from a scene in the novel that was tense.) Evidence-based: Repeated readings highly researched, huge impact. Kids build AWR which lasts for the rest of their lives. Phrasing and expression link fluency to comprehension. Builds reader self-efficacy. Student-centred: Kids are active in the process. They must read and re-read the scripts to ensure a flawless performance. Work in small groups or individually. Remember that this is a “script reading” NOT DRAMA. Kids must read not learn lines.

16 Your turn... Oral repeated reading Divide into groups of 6. Choral reading - The Other Cinderella Story In your groups of 6, continue reading the script. You have 10 minutes to prepare for your Readers Theatre performance.

17 Poet’s Corner Flexible: Poems can be switched out to match kids at any level. Performance is ESSENTIAL for purposeful practice and self-efficacy. Evidence-based: Phrasing and expression link fluency to comprehension. Student-centred: Kids enjoy the performance aspect and this gives a REAL purpose to reading something they might previously have rejected. High levels of group work needed. Performance is affirming in many ways.

18 Poet’s Corner… Poet’s Corner is a powerful way of not only engaging students in repeated reading but also in fostering skills in oral (performance) reading. And...they love it! Time to have a go Break into 4 groups Select a poem Spend 5-10 minutes rehearsing - Consider phrasing and expression PERFORMANCE TIME...yes you can do it!

19 Finally... The research is clear – repeated reading gets results. To accelerate the reading progress of our students we need to build: enthusiasm for reading – make it fun. resilience for longer texts – gradually increase the length of texts accuracy, speed and phrasing & expression (fluency)

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