“Fluency is associated with overall proficiency in reading” Pinnell et al, 1995 “Fluency, phrasing, and rate of reading are related to performance on tests of reading comprehension.” Fountas and Pinnell, 1996
“The answer is simple. When the reading is phrased like spoken language and the responding is fluent (and some people say fast), then there is a fair chance that the reader can read for meaning and check what he reads against his language knowledge. And his attention can go mainly to the messages.” Clay, Guidebook, p51
“Meaning is embedded in multiple word chunks of text or phrases, not in individual words themselves.” Rasinski T. and Padak N.
Woman, without her man, is nothing. Woman, without her, man is nothing.
Fluent readers,…, read quickly enough and with appropriate phrasing and expression that it is clear the reader is dealing with units larger than words. Phrases, clauses and sentences seem to be the more important unit of text for fluent readers. Rasinski T. and Padak N.
Phrasing in fluent reading is an integral part of an efficient process. It is not just highly practiced performance reading.
What does phrasing in fluent reading require the reader to do?
Phrasing in fluent reading involves: rapid word recognition, efficient ways to work out new words using the syntactic context and using the semantic context
It requires teacher awareness and analysis. How does the reading sound?
“The beginning reader has many things to learn about literacy and a heavy load of new concepts, new ideas, and new language slows the reader down. Also there are many different sources of information in print and the reader has to remember how to get to these and how they will help him. So beginning readers read slowly.” Clay, Guidebook p51
“If finger pointing is allowed to persist it may become a prop which gets in the way of fluent reading. “ Clay, Guidebook, p21
Non-fluent readers are most often non-fluent because of a lack of practice with reading. We cannot confuse teaching about reading with the act of reading.” Beers, 2002
“ to allow the child scope for practising the orchestration of all the complex range of behaviours he must use” Clay, Guidebook, p36
“Accuracy in word reading is not enough to ensure proficient reading.” Rasinski T. and Padak N.
Competent reading requires skills beyond the single-word level to contextual reading, and this skill can best be acquired by practicing reading in which words are in a meaningful context. NRP Report of the Subgroups, 2000
“..teachers may persist in trying to develop a high degree of word recognition accuracy without commensurate attention to other essential dimensions of fluency (i.e., speed, expression)….. Accuracy is not enough to ensure fluency.” NRP Report of the Sub-groups, 2000
“ Fluency is that bridge between word recognition and comprehension.”
“It has quite as much to do with looking as it has to do with language.” A second way to slow down children’s reading is to make them think that reading has only to do with letters, sounds and words. Clay, Guidebook, p36 and 37
To achieve phrasing in fluent reading: Begin early Get the whole process going well Massive opportunities for practice at a suitable level Teacher analysis- how does it sound Teaching that is persistent and consistent