Presentation on theme: "Unit 7: The Middle Ages & Crusades Daily Question: How influential was the Roman Catholic Church in Medieval Europe ? WARM-UP: - Would you fight for something."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 7: The Middle Ages & Crusades Daily Question: How influential was the Roman Catholic Church in Medieval Europe ? WARM-UP: - Would you fight for something you believe in? - What is something you believe in so strongly that you would fight for it?
“AGE OF FAITH” Religion dominates/controls people’s lives during the Middle Ages Islam spread from Saudi Arabia to Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Eastern Asia. Another religion controlled European daily life, laws and way of thinking… What religion do you think this was? Why?
Christianity 393 C.E.: Christianity official religion of Roman Empire (Roman Catholic Church) Pope is supreme ruler of lands Church center of community life – gains economic and political power. Sacraments were major occasions of people’s lives (such as baptism, confirmation, Eucharist/communion, matrimony/marriage, holy orders, penance, extreme unction). Church is Christian as a place of worship – focus on architecture of churches developed (like with mosques in Islamic Empire) People looked to the church to explain world events. The church provided stability, guidance and leadership for all classes of Europeans. Saint Benedict said, “to work is to pray,” so people worked really hard at their jobs to fulfill God’s wishes.
Monks, Nuns & Friars Monks were men who joined monasteries, communities devoted to prayer and service to fellow Christians (monasticism). Nuns were women who joined convents, communities devoted to prayer and service to fellow Christians. Both monks and nuns joined religious orders, which was a brotherhood or sisterhood with distinctive rules and forms of service. Friars wanted to live a religious life without having to go off to a monastery/convent, so they travel among ordinary people to preach and to care for the poor and the sick (like Saint Francis of Assisi)
Christian Crusades Palestine had come under the control of the Muslim Turks who were expanding their lands and treating Christians badly. In 1076, the Turks took Jerusalem In 1095, the Emperor Constantine asked Pope Urban II for help The Pope declared a religious war against the Muslims (Jews and Christian heretics) 1096 C.E.: the Roman Catholic Church led the European people in a Christian Crusade to reclaim Jerusalem (in Israel) and other holy sites in the Middle East from the Muslims. 1096 C.E. to 1291 C.E.: (approximately 195 years), Christians fought to gain control of the holy land now known as Palestine and in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. People showed their dedication to their faith by fighting in the crusades.
VOCABULARY Persecute: to cause a person to suffer because of his or her beliefs Heretic: a person who holds beliefs that are contrary to a set of religious teachings. Natural Law: the concept that there is a universal order built by nature that can guide moral thinking Religious Order: a brotherhood or sisterhood of monks, nuns or friars Crusades: a series of religious wars launched by European Christians to reclaim Jerusalem and other holy sites from Muslims Sultan: the supreme ruler of a Muslim state Holy Land: the area between Egypt and Syria that was the ancient homeland of Jews and the place where Jesus Christ had lived; also called Palestine Review (only write if you don’t remember): Religion: a set of spiritual beliefs, values and practices Roman Catholic Church: the Christian church headed by the pope in Rome Clergy: the body of people, like priests, who perform the sacred functions of the church Sacrament: a sacred rite of the Christian religion Pilgrimage: a journey to a holy site
Reading Activity Each person has been given readings about the Crusades. 1.Read the documents 2.Answer the questions at the bottom of each document 3.Share your answers with the person sitting next to you (pairs) 4.Share out answers to the second question on the board.
T-chart to compare Crusaders and Muslims WORDS TO DESCRIBE CRUSADERS WORDS TO DESCRIBE MUSLIMS
Reasons to fight in the Crusades POPE: REASONS TO GO FIGHT SALADIN: REASONS TO GO FIGHT
Imagine you were a Christian living in Europe in 1096, and you have heard this speech by Pope Urban II: “Although, O sons of God, you have promised more firmly than ever to keep the peace among yourself and to preserve the rights of the church, there remains still an important work for you to do…For your brethren who live in the east are in urgent need of your help, and you must hasten to give them the aid which has often been promised them. For, as most of you have heard, the Turks and Arabs have attacked them and have conquered the territory of Romania [the Byzantine Empire]…They have occupied more and more of the lands of those Christians, and have overcome them in seven battles. They have killed and captured many, and have destroyed the churches and devastated the empire…”
Imagine you were a Christian living in Europe in 1096, and you have heard this speech by Pope Urban II: “…If you permit them to continue thus for a while with impurity, the faithful of God will be much more widely attacked by them. On this account I, or rather the Lord, beseech you as Christ’s heralds to publish this everywhere and to persuade all people of whatever rank, foot-soldiers and knights, poor and rich, to carry aid promptly to those Christians and to destroy that…race from the lands of our friends. I say this to those who are present, it is meant also for those who are absent. Moreover, Christ commands it. All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the [Muslims], shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested…”
Imagine you were a Muslim living outside Jerusalem in 1187, and you heard this speech by Saladin: “If God blesses us by enabling us to drive His enemies out of Jerusalem, how fortunate and happy we would be! For Jerusalem has been controlled by the enemy for ninety-one years, during which time God has received nothing from us here in the way of adoration. At the same time, the zeal of the Muslim rulers to deliver it languished. Time passed, and so did many [in different] generations, while the Franks succeeded in rooting themselves strongly there. Now God has reserved the merit of its recovery for one house, the house of the sons of Ayyub [Saladin’s family], in order to unite all hearts in appreciation of its members.”
Discussion What surprised you during class today? Why were there different opinions? What happens to historians who don’t look at all sides? What happens in life when we don’t look at all sides? Do you think students in America have always been taught both sides of the Crusades? Do you think there are students elsewhere in the world now who are not taught both sides?
Visual Thinking Strategies
Journal #4 Answer ALL of the following questions: What was your opinion of the events? Why were there different opinions? What happens to historians who don’t look at all sides? Do you think students have always looked at both sides? Why or why not?
Homework NONE – take a breather and think about your goals for the new marking period
Unit 7: The Middle Ages & Crusades Daily Question: What caused the Crusades? How did the Crusades affect the lives of Christians, Muslims and Jews? WARM-UP: After reading the speeches from the leaders and accounts of the soldiers during the Crusades yesterday, what do you think CAUSED the Crusades?
Turkish Expansion 1055: Seljuk Turks had a new Muslim dynasty with the Sultan ruling over the Persian Empire, but they continued to try to expand their territory into what were Christian lands in Eastern Europe. Christians in Europe were bothered by the Turks taking over Christian lands in the East. Christians worried about losing access to the Holy Land of Jerusalem because it was sacred to Christianity, Islam and Judaism. It is where Jesus lived and was crucified and rose from the dead. It was also where Muhammad ascended to heaven in the night journey. As expected, the Turks took control of Palestine and made Christian pilgrimages to the holy land impossible. Christians worried they would never be able to visit the Christian holy land again. As the Turks approached Constantinople (the capital of the Byzantine Empire), Emperor Constantine asked Pope Urban II for help out of fear of losing his lands to the Turks.
Causes of the Crusades The Pope invited nobles and church leaders to attend a council in France where he called for a crusade to drive out the Muslims and reclaim Jerusalem. He promised entry to heaven to all who joined the fight. Put together armies with people of all classes joining the fight. They would wear a red cross as a symbol of their mission. Many people went to the crusades to fight, merchants went to earn money, younger sons of nobles went to gain estates in the Holy Land. A person who fought in the Holy Land also gained respect and prestige at home.
First Crusade ( ) 30,000 crusaders fought their way through Anatolia (modern Turkey) toward Palestine. 1098: crusaders spent nine months fighting their way through a ring of walls at the city of Antioch in Syria and won. 1099: crusaders surrounded Jerusalem and scaled the city walls. After a month, the city surrendered. Crusaders killed all against them, sold survivors into slavery and then they went home. With the exception of setting up four crusader kingdoms in Palestine, Syria and modern-day Lebanon and Turkey to protect. The Muslims were not strong because they hadn’t been united.
Second Crusade ( ) 1144: Muslims got together to capture the northernmost crusader kingdom. 1148: Christians got together and sent a second army led by the King of France. About 50,000 crusaders marched into the city. Muslims beat back the crusaders. The French army was defeated and went home.
Third Crusade ( ) Muslims came together under Muslim leadership I1180’s: the great Sultan Salah al-Din united Egypt, Syria and other eastern lands and took back most of Palestine. Losing Palestine shocked Europeans and had England’s King Richard I “the Lionhearted” leading a fight against the Sultan. 1191: crusaders forced the surrender of Palestinian towns and in a mixed up trade Richard ordered the deaths of 2,700 Muslim prisoners. 1192: the Sultan and King Richard signed a peace treaty, but the crusaders kept cities along the coast of Palestine and Muslims agreed to let Christian pilgrims enter Jerusalem. Crusades continued another 100 years or so fighting Muslims in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East
Reconquista “Eeconquista” = retaking the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal) Crusaders forced Muslims to give up more and more territory 1039: Portugal became an independent Christian kingdom. 1248: only Granada remained Muslim. Jews and Muslims remained in Christian-ruled areas. Late-1400s: Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand wanted to unite Spain as a Catholic country, so they used the Spanish Inquisition (a Roman Catholic Court) against Muslims and Jews who claim to have converted. Judges used torture to find out if converts were practicing their old religion. Thousands were burned at the stake. 1492: Granada fell and all were ordered to become Catholics. 170,000 Jews left Spain and Muslims left forever and went to Muslim lands or converted.
Visual Thinking Strategies
Effects of the Crusades European monarchs gained power, which weakened feudalism The use of money increased. Many killed on all sides and others lost property and homes. Muslims and Jews were driven out of Europe. Jews suffered hardships After the Crusades, the nomadic Mongols conquered eastern Muslim lands and ruled much of Asia. After the Crusades and Mongols, the Turks built a Muslim Empire in the Middle East, Southern Europe, Iran, Iraq, India, West Africa and Indonesia.
VOCABULARY Inquisition: a judicial body established by the Roman Catholic Church to combat forms of religious error Anti-Semitism: hostility/anger or discrimination against Jews Segregation: the forced separation of one group from the rest of a community Shah: a ruler in certain Middle East lands, especially Persia (modern-day Iran)
Battle Speeches Create a character (based off a real person/leader from the Crusades) The character should be a Christian OR Muslim person/leader Write a battle speech What might a leader say to his troops to build up morale and explain their motivation for doing what they are doing? Use your own Ebonics language for the speech as a leader would to his troops (meaning use the language you would use with your friends)
Journal #5 Answer ALL of the following questions: How did the Crusades impact the Christians? How did the Crusades impact the Muslims? How did the Crusades impact the Jews?
Homework None - relax
Unit 7: The Middle Ages & Crusades Daily Question: How did events in Europe contribute to the decline of feudalism and the rise of democratic thought? WARM-UP: Do you think ONE thing or ONE person can change the future? Why or why not? Give an example.
Political Developments in England Henry II made reforms, which strengthened English common law and the role of judges and juries. The Magna Carta established the idea of rights and liberties that even a monarch cannot violate. It stated that monarchs should rule with the advice of the governed. Edward I’s model parliament gave a voice in government to common people, as well as to nobles. VOCABULARY: Magna Carta: a written legal agreement signed in 1215 that limited the English monarch’s power Habeas Corpus: the legal concept that an accused person cannot be jailed indefinitely without being charged with a crime. Model Parliament: a governing body created by King Edward I of England that included some commoners, church officials and nobles.
Primary Source Document: Magna Carta 1. READ through the part of the Magna Carta 2. ANNOTATE (talk to) the text and answer questions 3. SHARE OUT how the Magna Carta changed the political lens of Europe/England
Bubonic Plague “Black Death” Symptoms (signs): fever, vomiting, fierce coughing, sneezing, sweating, black and blue swellings. Cause: dirty conditions, bacteria of the disease carried by fleas that feed on blood of infected rodents. Killed about 1/3 of the population in Europe (about 24 million Europeans die) and people in Asia (1/2 Chinese population killed by plague and famine) Trade and commerce slowed. After the plague, the need for workers to rebuild Europe led to a shift in power from feudal lords to the common people. Workers were able to demand more money because they were in demand. Peasants and serfs leave the estates for jobs in towns and cities. Peasant rebellions broke out. Peasant War in 1381 bring demands to King Richard II. Nobles tried to return to the way things were, but they couldn’t. End of feudalism VOCABULARY: Bubonic Plague: a deadly contagious disease caused by bacteria and spread by fleas; also called the Black Death
Simulation: Black Plague 1.Stand up 2.Everyone gets a sheet of paper 3.If the paper has a black dot on it then you have the Bubonic Plague (you will live for one round)
Simulation: Black Plague 1.Round 1: You will move one desk in any direction to find ONE other student. If your partner does NOT have the plague you are healthy. If your partner does have the plague, then you will live for one more round. End of Round 1: if you had the black dot paper in the beginning take a seat because you have unfortunately been killed by the plague.
Simulation: Black Plague 1.Round 2: You will move one desk in any direction to find ONE other student. If your partner does NOT have the plague you are healthy. If your partner does have the plague, then you will live for one more round. End of Round 2: if your first partner had the plague, then take a seat because you have unfortunately been killed by the plague.
Simulation: Black Plague 1.Round 3: You will move one desk in any direction to find ONE other student. If your partner does NOT have the plague you are healthy. If your partner does have the plague, then you will live for one more round. End of Round 3: if your second partner had the plague, then take a seat because you have unfortunately been killed by the plague.
Simulation: Black Plague 1.Round 4: You will move one desk in any direction to find ONE other student. If your partner does NOT have the plague you are healthy. If your partner does have the plague, then you will live for one more round. End of Round 4: if you have had a partner that had the plague, then take a seat because you have unfortunately been killed by the plague. Who is left standing? Congratulations! You survived the Black Plague
Hundred Years War English monarchs claimed lands in France, but French disagreed with their claim to land. English won in the beginning, but then French fought back with increased pride. Joan of Arc inspired the French to fight. The war led to a rise in national pride and identity in both countries and united people with patriotism for their monarch and country. Monarchs become symbol of the country and gain power. (Nobles less of an influence) Peasants and commoners: forced to fight and pay more taxes (Knights less of an influence) At end of the war: survivors were needed, so no matter your class you gain influence and power VOCABULARY: Hundred Years War: a series of Battles fought between France and England from 1337 to 1435.
The Trials of Joan of Arc Textbook p As a class, READ the biography of Joan of Arc 2. DISCUSS with a partner How did Joan’s extraordinary life show that new ways were about to replace old traditions in Europe? 3. SHARE OUT as a class How did Joan’s extraordinary life show that new ways were about to replace old traditions in Europe?
Visual Thinking Strategies
Journal #6 Answer ALL of the following questions: What did it feel like to know you could very soon have or already have the plague and will die? What event caused the end of the Middle Ages? How would you define the Middle Ages as an Era? The Middle Ages was a time when….happened.