What is Feudalism? A political and economic system of Europe(9 th - 15th century), based on the holding of all land, and the resulting relation of lord to vassal and characterized by homage, legal and military service of tenants, and forfeiture.
Magna Carta In 1199, the King of England was named John. He was considered a poor king as he lost most of England’s land in France, and heavily taxed his Lords/ Barrons. He also jailed people without cause, and fought with the Catholic Church (Only British King to have the first name of John)
In 1215 angry nobles will force King John to sign the Magna Carta, which means the “Great Charter” John and the Nobles agreed to certain terms: – John would remain king – John would observe common law and not jail anyone unlawfully without a jury of his peers (beginning of Habeas Corpus) – John would not put special taxes on the Catholic Church (Considered one of the original documents outlining a people’s rights)
King Edward I & Parliament 1295, John’s grandson, would create the Model Parliament with the goal of including the people more in government. The Model Parliament will include commoners, Church Officials, and Nobles Parliament & the MC help to develop the basic ideas of a democratic government.
Bubonic Plague The Bubonic Plague, also known as the Black Death, will also help to destroy Feudalism. The Plague hits Europe some time between 1346 & 1351
The Black Death is believed to start in Asia and follow trade routes to Europe. The cause would be fleas carried by rats The plague will cause fever, vomiting, fierce coughing, egg size swelling or bumps (buboes) The Swelling skin will appear black or dark blue in color
Ring around the Rosie "Ring around the Rosie"--refers to a red mark, supposedly the first sign of the plague "A pocket full of posies"-- refers to sachets of herbs carried to ward off infection "Ashes, ashes" --either a reference to the cremation of plague victims or to the words said in the funeral Mass..."Ashes to ashes, dust to dust." Sometimes line three is rendered as "Atischoo, atischoo"--sneezing, another sign of infection. "We all fall down." -- The Plague was not selective in its victims; both rich and poor, young and old, succumbed.
Impact of the Black Death 1200-1393: China’s Population cut roughly in half An Estimated 24,000,000 Europeans will die, 1/3 of their population A large number of peasants will die, weakening Feudalism. More peasants will move into new/better jobs because they are now available.
The power won’t go back to the Lords because of the desperate need for work. This work will come from the commoners Peasants also rebelled against their lords towards the end of the plague. Sometimes called the Golden Age of Peasants by historians.
Hundred Year’s War Lasted between 1337-1453 England v France Both countries claim the same territory and fight off an on over this period of time.
Battle of Crecy The English win most battles despite being outnumbered Battle of Crecy: Longbow used for the 1 st time (commoners recruited) Changes warfare
Joan of Arc The French aren’t good losing, when Henry V invades in 1415 the French fight back The French started to pay taxes for their army, recruit commoners, and were inspired by a 17 year old peasant girl who heard the saints, known as Joan of Arc She will be captured by the British, called a Heretic (speaks against church teachings) and will be burned at the stake.
Impact of Hundred Year’s War The use of commoners in the military will shift the power away from the nobles. Military technology will makes castles less helpful, and therefore lords and Kings become more normal. There is a shift towards nationalism (England, France) Deaths from the Wars gave other commoners a chance at better jobs.
Essay What factors lead to the decline of Feudalism? – We are going to discuss “how” to write a good history essay as a class, and you will be responsible for writing it.