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Chapter 15: The Revolt of the Maccabees UNDERSTANDING THE SCRIPTURES.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15: The Revolt of the Maccabees UNDERSTANDING THE SCRIPTURES."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15: The Revolt of the Maccabees UNDERSTANDING THE SCRIPTURES

2 ANTICIPATORY SET Free write for two minutes recalling the Jews’ Egyptian persecution under Pharaoh. Share responses. This lesson will explore a second great persecution of Jews in the Old Testament. 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

3 BASIC QUESTIONS  What was Alexander the Great’s legacy?  Why was King Antiochus IV terrible for Israel?  What did the Maccabees accomplish? KEY IDEAS  Alexander the Great’s conquest of the known world sparked Hellenization—the spread of Greek culture—which threatened to destroy the Jewish faith in Israel.  King Antiochus IV, who had desecrated the Temple in Jerusalem, sought to Hellenize Israel, by terror if necessary.  The Maccabees launched a successful revolt against Antiochus and gained an independent Israel. 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

4 FOCUS QUESTIONS Who was Philip of Macedon? He was the father of Alexander the Great. Philip united Greece into one nation through a combination of war, diplomacy, and deceit. What did Alexander the Great accomplish? With lightening speed, he conquered the known world from Greece all the way to India. What was Hellenism? Hellenism was the process by which lands conquered by Alexander the Great adopted Greek culture, language, religion, learning, architecture, art, and customs. 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

5 FOCUS QUESTIONS How can a significant part of the history of the Jews be seen as a conflict between two great powers? Israel was caught between Assyria and Egypt, then Babylon and Egypt, then it was conquered by the Egyptian Ptolemies, and then by the Persian Seleucids. What is the significance of the names Epiphanes and Epimanes? Epiphanes was the name King Antiochus IV took for himself, meaning god manifest (epiphany). Epimanes is what many of his subjects called him, meaning out of his mind. They thought he was out of his mind for believing himself to be a god and his debauched behavior. What was King Antiochus’ dream? He dreamt to Hellenize his empire completely, setting aside all local customs. 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

6 FOCUS QUESTIONS What were the roles of the Jewish high priest under Antiochus, and how was he chosen? The high priest was both the religious and secular ruler of the Jews. Antiochus sold this position to the highest bidder, so only rich, Hellenized Jews could fill this office. What problem did Hellenization pose for the Jews? All peoples, including the Jews, were expected to set aside the Law of Moses and adopt the Greek religion. How did Antiochus adapt the Temple to Greek worship? He rededicated it to Zeus, seeing the God of the Israelites as a manifestation of the Greeks’ highest god. 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

7 GUIDED EXERCISE A think / pair / share using the following question:  According to the Catechism, no. 992, how is the hope of resurrection a consequence of faith in God? 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

8 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is Judaism? The Jews began to call their religion Judaism to distinguish it from Hellenism. What did King Antiochus insist from all Jews? They had to take part in Greek sacrifices, which included eating pork and other meat sacrificed to idols. What happened to those who defied Antiochus’ edict? They were tortured and killed. 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

9 FOCUS QUESTIONS Why did Mattathias and his five sons retire to the countryside? They began a seemingly hopeless resistance because they thought it was better to die resisting than offend God. Who was Judas Maccabeus? He was the most talented soldier in the Maccabeus family. What did the Maccabees accomplish by about 125 BC? They had restored an independent Israel. 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

10 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Complete the following table to compare the persecution under Pharaoh before the Exodus with the persecution under King Antiochus before the Maccabean Revolt. 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

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12 GUIDED EXERCISE Read 1 Maccabees 1:54–57. Then, analyze the illustration “Holy Seven Maccabees” (p. 280). Do a think / pair / share using the following question:  Why does this icon depict the Maccabees with rolled ‑ up scrolls rather than traditional martyrs’ crosses? 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

13 CLOSURE Free write for five minutes comparing the pagan Emperor Cyrus and King Antiochus with respect to their treatment of the Jews. 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

14 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT  Study Questions 1–8 (p. 286)  Practical Exercise 1 (p. 286)  Workbook Questions 1–15  Read “What the Jews Believed” through “Judas Maccabeus and the Story of Hanukkah” (pp. 281– 283) 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

15 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Use the completed Graphic Organizer on page 278 to write a well ‑ organized paragraph comparing the Egyptian and Hellenistic persecutions of the Chosen People. 1. The Maccabean Revolt (pp. 274–280)

16 ANTICIPATORY SET Read aloud the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (cf. Lk 16:19–31). A mini-lecture on the immortality of the soul. 2. What the Jews Believed (pp. 281–283)

17 BASIC QUESTION  What new Jewish beliefs are found in the Books of Maccabees? KEY IDEA  The Books of Maccabees show Jews believed “Israel” referred to not all Jews but the faithful remnant; the saints who die will rise again to an eternal reward; martyrdom is preferred to apostasy; God punished Israel to discipline her; and it is good to pray for the dead. 2. What the Jews Believed (pp. 281–283)

18 FOCUS QUESTION How does the new understanding of Israel foreshadow the Church? The New Covenant extends God’s promise to all nations; therefore, every person in the world who is faithful to God is a member of Israel, a spiritual child of Abraham. 2. What the Jews Believed (pp. 281–283)

19 GUIDED EXERCISE Choose a quote from the section “2. The saints who die...” (p. 281), and write about how it reflects a belief in the resurrection of the body. 2. What the Jews Believed (pp. 281–283)

20 FOCUS QUESTIONS According to the Books of Maccabees, what does Israel mean? It refers to faithful Jews, which was often only a small minority of the population. What did St. Paul mean by children of the flesh and children of the promise? All Jews were children of the flesh of Abraham because they were his physical descendants, but only those who were faithful to God were children of the promise made with Abraham. Why did the Maccabees prefer martyrdom to apostasy? Apostasy can result in life and happiness for a brief span of years, but martyrdom results in eternal reward. 2. What the Jews Believed (pp. 281–283)

21 FOCUS QUESTIONS What did the seven sons’ mother mean when she told one of them the Creator will “give life and breath back to you again”? After martyrdom, God would raise him back to life. What was the purpose of the sufferings of Israel? They needed discipline, not revenge. Punishment is for rebuke and discipline and reconciliation with God. Why was Judas Maccabeus afraid for some of his soldiers? After their deaths in battle, he discovered they were wearing pagan amulets (good luck charms). He was afraid God would punish them for this. Why is it good and wise to pray for the dead according to 2 Maccabees? It is holy and pious to make atonement for the dead so, when they rise, they might be delivered of their sin. What is the relationship between 2 Maccabees and Purgatory? This book teaches the dead can be helped by prayers. 2. What the Jews Believed (pp. 281–283)

22 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Summarize five distinctive beliefs of the Jews. 2. What the Jews Believed (pp. 281–283)

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24 CLOSURE Write a well ‑ organized paragraph explaining five distinctive beliefs of the Jews at the time of the Maccabees (cf. Graphic Organizer, p. 282). 2. What the Jews Believed (pp. 281–283)

25 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT  Study Questions 9–13 (p. 286)  Practical Exercises 2–3 (p. 286)  Workbook Questions 16–22 2. What the Jews Believed (pp. 281–283)

26 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT A class discussion using the following question (cf. Anticipatory Set, p. 281):  Is the argument for the immortality of the soul from the nature of God a satisfying and convincing argument? 2. What the Jews Believed (pp. 281–283)

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