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©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Chapter 4 The Troubled World into Which Jesus Was Born.

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Presentation on theme: "©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Chapter 4 The Troubled World into Which Jesus Was Born."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Chapter 4 The Troubled World into Which Jesus Was Born

2 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Key Topics/Themes The division of Alexander’s empire after his death The influence of Rome in Palestine

3 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Alexander and His Successors The conquests of Alexander The Diadochi: Alexander’s successors –The Ptolemies (descendants of Ptolemy I) –The Seleucids (descendants of Seleucus)

4 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Antiochus’s Persecution and the Maccabean Revolt

5 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Palestine and the Hellenistic Kingdoms The Seleucids gain control of Palestine from the Ptolemies (199 B.C.E.) The rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes ( B.C.E.)

6 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes ( B.C.E.) Forced Hellenization upon the Jews Outlawed the traditions of Judaism Made Jerusalem Temple into shrine to Greek god Zeus The martyrdoms endured by the Hasidim (“pious ones”)

7 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Torah Loyalism, Martyrdom, and the Reward of Future Life Torah loyalism and martyrdom in 2 Maccabees Torah loyalism and martyrdom in the Book of Daniel

8 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Maccabean Revolt ( B.C.E.) The defiance of Mattathias Judas Maccabeus (the “Hammer”) Rededication of the Temple, December 164 B.C.E. The Feast of Dedication (Hanukkah) The Hasmonean dynasty ( B.C.E.)

9 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Domination of Rome Roman general Pompey marches on Palestine (63 B.C.E.) Jewish Hasmonean kings reduced to client rulers by Roman power

10 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Career of Herod the Great (37-4 B.C.E.) Herod’s political expansion Herod’s building projects –Fortresses (Masada) –Port city of Caesarea –Refurbishment of Jerusalem Temple

11 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Herod’s Successors Herod’s three sons –Herod Philip (4 B.C.E.-34 C.E.) –Herod Antipas (4 B.C.E.-39 C.E.) –Herod Archelaus (4 B.C.E.-6 C.E.) Judea ruled by procurators after 6 C.E. Other significant descendants –Herod Agrippa I (41-44 B.C.E.) –Herod Agrippa II

12 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education The Roman Emperors Augustus (27-14 C.E.) Tiberius (14-37 C.E.) New Testament attitudes toward Rome –Jesus’ criticisms of Roman power –Key roles of Roman soldiers in Jesus ministry –Paul’s accommodating stance –Revelation: Rome an evil “harlot”

13 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Jewish Revolts Against Rome First revolt (66-73 C.E.) –Incited by Jewish nationalists –Crushed by Vespasian and Titus –Jerusalem and Temple destroyed (70 C.E.) –Chief historical source: Flavius Josephus The bar Kochba revolt ( C.E.)

14 ©McGraw-Hill Higher Education Summary Jesus’ life framed by Jewish wars for independence –Maccabean revolt ( B.C.E.) –First Jewish revolt (66-73 C.E.) –Bar Kochba revolt ( C.E.) Jesus’ words and deeds to be interpreted in the context of seething Jewish nationalism


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