Second Temple Judaism (520 BC-70AD) 1.Brief historical survey. 2.Major elements: temple, Torah, messianic expectations. 3.Major religious groups.
Timeline undivided monarchy 922 Solomon’s kingdom divided into Northern (Israel) and Southern (Judah) 721 Northern kingdom is defeated by the Assyrians Babylonian exile; 587 Temple destroyed Persian rule; 520 Temple rebuilt. Second Temple Judaism begins Hellenization under Alexander the Great and his successors from Egypt & Syria Hundred years of independence under Maccabees 63 BC Roman conquest of Palestine. Independence lost till 20 th c. AD! 70 AD Second Temple destroyed. …… Recognition of the State of Israel
Persian king Cyrus ( BCE) Defeated the Babylonians Allowed the Hebrews to return from Babylon and to rebuild the Temple
Map of Persian invasion
Alexander the Great ( BCE) Conquered Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, Persia Hellenization
Alexander Sarcophagus Royal Necropolis of Sidon, chamber #3. Last quarter of 4 th c BC. Istanbul Archeological Museum
Hellenization So far has our city [Athens] surpassed the rest of mankind in thought and speech that her pupils have become the teachers of the rest of the world; and our city has brought it about that the name ‘Hellenes’ suggests no longer a race, but an intelligence, and the title ‘Hellenes’ is applied rather to those who share our culture than to those who share common blood. – Isocrates.
Antiochus IV—forced Hellenization King Antiochus, God manifest, bearing Victory Ordered to destroy the Scriptures Abrogated Sabbath observance Prohibited circumcision Sacrificed swine in the Temple
Second Temple (model). Destroyed in 70 A.D.
Inscription Prohibiting strangers to enter the Temple of Jerusalem Original. Archeological Museum, Constantinople. Copy. Museo di Civilta Romana, Rome.
Second Temple Judaism: main events 520. Jews return from Babylon and rebuild the Temple 332 BC Alexander the Great conquers the Near East. Hellenization. 167 BC Maccabean revolt against Antiochus IV. One century of independence. 63 BC Romans conquer Palestine AD Jewish war. Temple destroyed. Young Alexander
Pharisees & Sadducees PhariseesSadducees Luke 18: Acts 5:34 Mark 7:1-13 Mark 8:11 Mark 3:6 Acts 23:1-8 Acts 4:1 Acts 5:17 Acts 23:6-8 Mark 12: 18-27
Essenes in Qumran (2 nd c. BCE-1 st c CE) Lived in an isolated community founded by “Teacher of Righteousness” Rejected Temple worship Expected two messiahs, royal & priestly About 4000 in 1 st c. CE Massacred by Romans in 68 AD. Disappeared towards the end of 2 nd c CE
A Fragment of Hosea Commentary from Qumran
Jewish Diaspora 500 BC – 500 CE
Who do you say that I am? …On the way [Jesus] asked his disciples, "Who do people say that I am?" And they answered him, " John the Baptist ; and others, Elijah ; and still others, one of the prophets." He asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered him, " You are the Messiah." And he sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him. Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. He said all this quite openly. And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. But turning and looking at his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, “ Get behind me, Satan ! For you are setting your mind not on divine things but on human things.” Mk 8: