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History Between the Exile and Jesus History : Persian Period Cyrus [ca. 539 BC(E)] –Sheshbazzar Darius [ca. 520] –Joshua and Zerubbabel –Haggai and Zechariah.

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Presentation on theme: "History Between the Exile and Jesus History : Persian Period Cyrus [ca. 539 BC(E)] –Sheshbazzar Darius [ca. 520] –Joshua and Zerubbabel –Haggai and Zechariah."— Presentation transcript:

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2 History Between the Exile and Jesus

3 History : Persian Period Cyrus [ca. 539 BC(E)] –Sheshbazzar Darius [ca. 520] –Joshua and Zerubbabel –Haggai and Zechariah Artaxerxes –I –II –Ezra, Nehemiah

4 History: Hellenistic [Greek] Period Alexander the Great –Ca. 333 Ptolemaic Rule –Ca Seleucid Rule –Ca

5 Map of the Kingdoms

6 Brief History: Maccabean and Roman Maccabean Age –Antiochus IV Epiphanes –Judas Maccabeus Roman Rule (beginning 63 BCE) –Judean War (66-74 CE/AD) –Jewish Revolt outside Judah ( ) –Bar Kokhba Revolt ( )

7 Maccabees (1&2)

8 Chronology 200 BC(E) Seleucids take Palestine – Antiochus III – Seleucus IV Antiochus IV –168 Suppression of Jewish Worship Judas Maccabaeus Jonathan, high priest Simon, high priest....

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10 Initial Comparison 1 Maccabees –Hebrew –Original –Covers –Hasmonean Dynasty 2 Maccabees –Greek –Abridgement (Jason) –Covers –Judas and Temple

11 Brief Outline: 1 Maccabees The historical context [chapter 1] The revolt of Mattathias [chapter 2] Judas the Maccabee [3:1-9:22] Jonathan [9:23-12:53] Simon [13:1-16:17] John [16:18-24]

12 Readings 1 Maccabees 1:44-50, –Religious suppression 1 Maccabees 2:1-5, –The zeal of Mattathias 1 Maccabees 4:34-37, 41-47, –Temple dedication

13 Reasons for Persecution Character of Antiochus –[cf Polybius 26.1] Goal of conversion of Jews –[Tacitus Histories 5.8] Gentile arrogance –[1 Maccabees 1:21] Israel’s sins –[2 Maccabees 5:17-20; 6:12-16]

14 Brief Outline: 2 Maccabees Letters to Egyptian Jews [1:1-2:18] Preface [2:19-32] Protection of temple [chapter 3] Punishment of Jerusalem [4-7] Deliverance and dedication [8:1-10:9] Victories of Judas [10:10-13:26] Defeat of Nicanor [14:1-15:36] Epilogue [15:37-39]

15 Readings The perpetual fire and the ark –2 Macc 1:19-23,30-34; 2:1-7 Creatio ex nihil(o) [Creation from Nothing] –2 Macc 7:28 Resurrection of the dead and Prayer for the dead –2 Macc 7-8; 12:39-45

16 It ain’t over 'til it’s over 1.Rededication of temple? [1 Macc 4:34-59] (164) 2.Defeat of Nicanor and control of Jerusalem? [2 Macc] (161, Judas) 3.Establishment of Hasmonean dynasty? [1 Macc] (134, John Hyrcanus)

17 Judith

18 Setting Structure of book –International setting 1-7 –Judean struggle 8-16

19 Characters Nebuchadnezzar –Evil king [cf real Nebuchadnezzar and Antiochus] Holofernes –General [named after Persian general] Achior –Ammonite Judith –Cf. Maccabee, Miriam, Deborah, Jael, others

20 Readings Judith 5:17-21; 6:10-13 –Achior: witness and “punishment” Judith 9:11-14 –Judith’s theme Judith 12:13-13:10 –The deed is done Judith 16:1-12 –Triumph song

21 Other Historical Stories 3 Maccabees [not in Latin Bible] –Set under Ptolemy IV ( ) –combination of persecution of Egyptian Jews and threat to Jerusalem temple Tobit –before the fall of Assyria to the Medes –about individual sufferings and setbacks [Tobit's and Sara's]

22 Next Week Wisdom –Sirach [Ecclesiasticus] –Wisdom of Solomon Hope –2 Esdras


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