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Ch.11: The ancient Hebrews and the origins of Judaism

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1 Ch.11: The ancient Hebrews and the origins of Judaism


3 The Hebrew civilization
Hebrew Civilization thrived from 1800 B.C.E. – 70 C.E. Originally From Mesopotamia, moved to land of Canaan Hebrews were founders of Judaism Transformed from Hebrews to Jews

4 The torah Origins and basic laws come from the Torah (God’s teaching)
Torah consists of first five books of the Christian Bible (Old Testament) Historians study to understand history of Judaism Historians also study artifacts left behind

5 The ancient Hebrews According to Torah, Abraham: ancestor of the Hebrews, lived in Mesopotamia 1950 B.C.E. Abraham led many to Canaan, herded sheep & goats 1800 B.C.E. Hebrews fled to Egypt due to a famine Hebrews became slaves, Moses led Hebrews out of Egypt

6 The ancient Hebrews After escaping Egypt, Hebrews wandered for 40 years, return to Canaan 1,000 B.C.E. Hebrews set up Kingdom of Israel Canaan under rule of Kind David & son, King Solomon Solomon built a temple in capital city Jerusalem

7 Western Wall built by King Solomon

8 Important hebrew leaders
Abraham Moses King Solomon Four Key Jewsh Leaders King David

9 Abraham “Father of the Hebrews”: introduced Judaism
Based on belief of one God (Uncommon for this era) Torah: God told him to move his family to Canaan God promised to make him the father of a blessed nation Descendants known as Jewish People

10 moses “Greatest Leader”: led his people out of slavery in Egypt
Moses told Hebrews: God lead them to Canaan for their faithful obedience Canaan is known as the promise land God gave Moses 10 most important laws Became foundation of Jewish beliefs

11 King David & King solomon
Back to Canaan, ruled under Kings David and Solomon Jerusalem became Holy City King Solomon built the first great temple.

12 Abraham’s covenant with god
Judaism began with a covenant between God & Abram God visited Abram as an old man, told to leave his country Mesopotamia to Canaan At age 99, made another covenant with God

13 Abraham’s covenant with god
God promised to protect Abram’s descendants Mark of covenant: gave a new name, Abraham Abraham means “father of many” Covenant meant: Jews would set an example for how God wanted people to live

14 Abraham's sacrifice God often tested Abraham’s faith
Sacrifices common of animals God tested his faith by sacrificing Abraham’s son Abraham agreed, took Isaac to sacrifice him Stopped by an angel at last minute

15 Abraham's sacrifice God promised again to bless Abraham’s descendants
Hebrews flourished, nation made of 12 tribes Abraham introduced idea of one God Jews believe they should set an example of how people should live

16 Exodus from Egypt Moses became leader around 1250 B.C.E.
Hebrews became very powerful and large in numbers Pharaoh felt threatened, made Jews be slaves Moses with God’s strength went to the Pharaoh to free the Jews

17 Exodus from Egypt Pharaoh wouldn't free the slaves
God punished Egypt with 10 different plagues Locusts devoured all crops, Nile turned into blood Angel sent by God killed first born son of watch family Pharaoh finally gave in.

18 Exodus from Egypt Moses started to lead the Hebrews out of Egypt
Egyptian Army caught up with the Hebrews by Red Sea Moses raised his stick and the sea parted Hebrews got across, water came back while army tried to cross drowning the soldiers

19 The ten commandments 10 laws, foundation of Judaism
Given to Moses at Mt. Sinai Commandments remind Hebrews to only worship one God Sabbath- seventh day of the week to rest and worship

20 The ten commandments Basic Moral Laws
Hebrews obey commandments to honor covenant with God. Had to make moral laws known to the world Moses: led Jews out of Egypt, still celebrated today, brought the 10 Commandments, and worship one God

21 Kingdom of Israel David’s time: 1000 B.C.E.
Hebrews at war with Philistines Philistines agreed to be Hebrews slaves if could beat their strongest warrior Teenage David agreed to fight Goliath Goliath was mocking God

22 Kingdom of Israel One mighty throw, Goliath fell
David later became King due to strength and courage David ended wars and united the Kingdom of Israel New Kingdom had government, courts, army, David served as nation’s chief priest

23 King david David chose Jerusalem as capital city
Jerusalem: center of religious and political life Ark of the Covenant to Israel Ten Commandments in a wood and gold chest

24 King Solomon Death of David, Solomon takes over
Built temple in Jerusalem to house the Ark of the Covenant Hebrew people built temple Over 3,000 officials needed to oversee the project Taxed his people a lot to pay for gold, wood, and copper

25 King Solomon Solomon angered the Hebrew people
Kingdom divided near Solomon’s death David & Solomon’s descendants ruled Southern Kingdom David & Solomon laid foundation for Jews to be governed by Kings: 400 years

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