2AP Outline2. Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings,First European contacts with Native AmericansSpain's empire in North AmericaFrench colonization of CanadaEnglish settlement of New England, the Mid-Atlantic region, and the SouthFrom servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake regionReligious diversity in the American coloniesResistance to colonial authority: Bacon's Rebellion, the Glorious Revolution, and the Pueblo Revolt3. Colonial North America,Population growth and immigrationTransatlantic trade and the growth of seaportsThe eighteenth-century back countryGrowth of plantation economies and slave societiesThe Enlightenment and the Great AwakeningColonial governments and imperial policy in British North America
3Possible Essay Questions Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society (to 1740) in TWO of the following regions:New EnglandChesapeakeMiddle Atlantic“The English founded colonies to escape oppression in England.”Assess the validity of this statement.
4“Geography was the primary factor in shaping the development of the British colonies in North America”Assess the validity of this statement for the 1600’s.
5English ExplorationCabot-(1497) explored for the English, Newfoundland, looking for Northwest Passage, claimed Northern portion of North America for English
6English Empire= Ireland English began to invade and control Ireland in the early 1400s.They found that it was not possible to pacify the Irish readily and created a pattern that was repeated in the New World.Plantation- different than a large farm- really a system of planting settlers in a hostile territory in an effort to hold the land.Pattern:First try to negotiate for land and allegianceExpel the nativesMove in populationParallels to North American Indians and Irish were clear
7Timeline -1607 Jamestown is Founded -1620 Pilgrims Land in Plymouth The Great Migration-1634 Lord Baltimore Founds Maryland-1636 Thomas Hooker Founds ConnecticutPuritans Found Harvard University1639 Fundamental Orders Written in Connecticut-1644 Roger Williams Established Rhode Island-1663 The Carolinas are Founded1664 The English Take New York From the Dutch-1675 King Phillip’s War-1676 Bacon’s Rebellion-1679 New Hampshire is Established-1682 William Penn Founds Pennsylvania-1702 New Jersey Units Under a Royal Charter The Carolinas are Divided Into North and South-1732 Oglethorpe Founds Georgia for Debtors
8Chesapeake/Virginia/Roanoke/ Jamestown (1584) Elizabeth I began English monarch’s sponsorship of colonies in North AmericaQueen gave Gilbert a license, when he died the, half brother – Walter Raleigh the license to start a colony in North America.1585 Raleigh sent settlers to Roanoke, part of original Virginia-After a number of expeditions, settlers of Roanoke disappeared and they were never seen again, mysterious note of Croatoan carved on a tree. (1590)
10Joint-Stock CompanyPrivate investors bought shares in trading companies and sponsored colonies in AmericaBusiness Run Colony= reduced royal controlThese companies contracted with the crown example:The Virginia Company of London (Southern land) 1606 sent 3 ships, 144 men established Jamestown- Chesapeake area.The Virginia Company of Plymouth (Northern Land Grant)
11Jamestown: First permanent English settlement in America Named after King James ISettlement was in bad location, low, swampy land, malaria was commonAlgonquian Chief Powhatan- daughter was PocahontasCaptain John Smith was one early officer of the colony- helped bring order to the colony by creating strict rules to live by.
12Jamestown: SocialEarly period, mostly males, “get rich quick” single, 4-5 males to 1 femaleFew women, few families, hunting for goldLife was difficult, starvation common early “The Starving Time”Population was lured to Jamestown through Indentured Servitude, passage to new world in exchange for working the land for a specific period of time. The hope was that after the period of servitude land would be obtained.Very individualisticHeadright- system, in an effort to encourage immigration to Virginia, land-grant of 50 acres
13Jamestown: Relationship with Indians At first the Indians tolerated the colonists and even helped provide food, and agriculture techniques (John Smith- was captured and released)Later hostilities break out, open and periodic warfareIndians and Anglo societies do not mix from the beginning.Issues of land ownership, land use, pattern of living cause conflict- to last through till the 20th century
14Jamestown: EconomicFirst years were subsistence agriculture, learning form Indians what crops to grow to liveLater Tobacco economy develops as a cash crop for very lucrative trade.John Rolfe is and example of tobacco entrepreneur (married Pocahontas)As labor demands increase, African slaves begin to be imported in 1619Other industries develop to sustain the colony: lumber, glassworks, ironworks…
15Jamestown: Political1619, the Virginia Company created the first representative body in America, the House of BurgessesGovernor appointed by the Crown
16Royal ColonyA colony controlled directly by the Crown of England, not a private company1624, James I revoked the charter of the Virginia Company because of debts
17Maryland 1632Charles I, divided Virginia and gave part to George Calvert or Lord Baltimore-Proprietary Colony- colony under the control of a single owner- but loyal to the CrownCalvert was a catholic- allowed Catholics to move, “Catholic Refuge” but still a minority, mostly protestants.1649, Act of Toleration or “Act Concerning Religion” the Calverts persuaded the Assembly to adopt a law of religious toleration- but only for Christians
18Maryland: Strong control by Proprietor, Lord Baltimore Tobacco Economy Large plantationsSlave laborHeadright SystemRefuge for CatholicsIndentured Servants
19Which Colony would appreciate this poem most? They cry, they roar for anguish sore,And gnaw their tongues for horrour. But get awayWithout delay,Christ pitties not your cry:Depart to Hell, there may you yell,And roar Eternally.
20New England Colonies: Religious Motives v. Money Puritans or English Calvinists- rejected Catholicism and were critical of English King James- some left and were known as Separatists also known as Pilgrims.Virginia Company of Plymouth- allowed Pilgrims to settle- Mayflower- 102 people, ½ Pilgrims1620- Established Plymouth ColonyNot Sanctioned by crown till later when merged with Mass Bay
21Mayflower CompactBefore Pilgrims stepped ashore in America they created an covenant or contract- to abide by the laws of the community and to create a government- (this was not a constitution)
22Plymouth: Economic Aspects No large plantations Social Aspects Small landholdingsTraded fur, fish, lumberStrong work ethicPoliticalMale dominatedElection of governor- William Bradford- served for 30 yearsSocial AspectsTraveled in families- tight communityVery religious- intolerant of differencesSmall population, grows to 300 after 10 yearsSome cooperation with Indians at first later conflicts occurLiteracy important
24Massachusetts Bay The Second colony to be founded in the North Charter from King, Massachusetts Bay Company- Joint Stock CompanyShare holders elected John Winthrop as Governorsettlers came- no control by owners in EnglandBoston area and Eastern Massachusetts
25Massachusetts Bay Colony Very religious community/PuritansWinthrop wanted to create the a holy model of purity- “City upon a hill” as an example to allJohn Cotton- was a prominent clergyman/community leader urged religious pietyAll adult free men, part of a Puritan congregation could voteTown hall meetings used to discuss and vote on local matters** one significant factor, no religious leader could hold office.
26Great Migration1630s during the English Civil War 15,000, many puritans move to Massachusetts Bay.More people moved to New England than in Virginia,000 pop (NE)1700Massachusetts = 56,000 -Virginia 42,000
27New England: Mixed Economy Individual farmersNo large cash cropTraded: lumber, ships stores, ship building, sawmills, fish, livestock, participated in slave trade- to the West Indies (Caribbean)
28Protestant Work EthicOne of the most influential contributions the Puritan culture offered and continues through today is the idea of hard work.Puritans believed hard work was the way to salvation.
291636 Harvard and the Puritans Puritans created the first universities in British colonies-To educate the clergy.
30Anne Hutchinson Out-spoken woman of Mass Bay Believed and stated many clergy were not part of the “elect” and should not have authorityKnown as the Antinomian heresy.Was banished from Mass Bay went to Rhode Island
31Rhode IslandRoger Williams -- minister from Salem a. Extreme Separatist who challenged legality of Plymouth and Bay Colony charters because land belonged to Indians and was not the king’s land to grant Claimed colony took land from Indians w/o fair compensation b. "liberty of conscience" i. Williams denied authority of civil gov't to regulate religious behavior Stated gov’t could only punish civil crimes while the church alone had responsibility for religious discipline. --Stated that no man should be forced to go to church In effect, challenged the basis of the Massachusetts Bay government. c. General Court banished him from colony in October, 1635 and Williams fled in winter of 1636 to Narragansett Bay; sheltered by Indian friends. d. He purchased lands from Indians and founded the community of Providence, accepting all settlers regardless of their beliefs. Rhode Island
32Connecticut 1635 Thomas Hooker- from Massachusetts Bay Led a group of Puritans west to establish Hartford (Fertile Land)Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: created an independent colony of similar to Mass. Bay;Was the first modern Constitution in America
33CarolinasProprietary colony (8 owners)- Mixed population- many from other colonies- Virginia and BarbadosHeadrights-Brought slaves with them, large % of population slavesFundamental Constitution of Carolina- provide order- division of land, Freedom of Conscious (religion) Never was fully enactedTobacco economy, but included rice, indigo, cotton,North Carolina peopleTobacco was paramount1700 south Carolina had 10,000 people, majority blackSplit and Royal colony after 1729
34New York and New Jersey Proprietary colonies Taken from the Dutch by force (1664)King Charles II sends troops and fleet to take and given to James II.Freedom of religion to all ChristiansSome participatory government (assembly)Changes to Royal colony in 1685Trade important-farming important
37Pennsylvania (1681)Proprietary Colony- William Penn given ownership- debts owed by Crown to his family.Refuge for Quakers: “Society of Friends”Beliefs: equality (including gender), no kneeling, no oaths, pacifists, anti-violence, plain clothesLarge colonyFreedom of worshipDiverse population- German, Swedes, FinsPolitical: Penn held much power (nearly absolute)Elected assembly- to help governEnglish- held power of legal review and regulated tradeFriendly relations with Indians