Presentation on theme: "1 Go-Around. PREFACE Failure to recognize the need for and to execute a go-around, when required, is a major cause of approach and landing accidents."— Presentation transcript:
PREFACE Failure to recognize the need for and to execute a go-around, when required, is a major cause of approach and landing accidents. Because a go-around is an infrequent occurrence, it is important to be "go-around minded". The decision to go-around should not be delayed, as an early go-around is safer than a last minute one at lower altitude. FCTM
CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GO-AROUND A go-around must be considered if: There is a loss or a doubt about situation awareness If there is a malfunction which jeopardizes the safe completion of the approach e.g. Major navigation problem ATC changes the final approach clearance resulting in rushed action from the crew or potentially unstable approach The approach is unstable in speed, altitude, and flight path in such a way that stability will not be obtained by 1000 ft IMC or 500 ft VMC Any GPWS, TCAS or windshear alert occur Adequate visual cues are not obtained reaching the minima. FCTM
a navigation radio or flight instrument failure occurs which affects the ability to safely complete the approach the navigation instruments show significant disagreement on an RNP based approach and an alert message indicates that ANP exceeds RNP on a radar approach and radio communication is lost.
OPERATIONS MANUAL PART-B NON-TYPE (B) Approach Stabilization (1) Straight-in approaches shall be stabilized at 1000ft AAL. (2) Non-straight-in approaches shall be stabilized at 500ft AAL. (3) Depending on the type of approach, PM/PNF will callout 1000ft or 500ft. (4) PF will reply: (a) “STABILIZED” and continue the approach, or (b) “GO-AROUND” and initiate go-around.
OPERATIONS MANUAL PART-B NON-TYPE (C) Stable Approach Criteria An approach is said to be stabilized when all of the conditions below are met and maintained until touchdown. (1) All briefings and checklists have been completed. (2) ILS approaches must be flown within one dot of the localizer and glide slope. (3) Non-precision approaches maximum deviation from VOR is ½ dot or 2.5 degrees and NDB is 5 degrees. (4) Only small changes in heading/pitch are required to maintain the correct flight path. (5) The aircraft indicated airspeed is between [VREF and VREF + 20] or as adjusted by minimum ground speed methods and power setting appropriate for airplane configuration. (6) Power setting is no less than minimum approach power. (7) The aircraft is in the correct landing configuration. (8) Rate of descent is not greater than 1000 fpm. Note: For straight-in approaches speed and/or power requirements as indicated above could be delayed until 500ft AAL if all other criteria are already met.
OPERATIONS MANUAL PART-B NON-TYPE (H) A detailed go-around briefing should be included in the descent and approach briefing, highlighting the key points of the go-around maneuver and missed approach procedures, and the planned task sharing under normal or non - normal conditions. (1) The go-around briefing should include the following key topics: (a) Go-around callout (i.e., a loud and clear go-around, flaps call) (b) PF and PM/PNF task sharing (e.g., flow of respective actions, including use of the autopilot, speed restrictions, go-around altitude, deviation callouts) (c) Intended use of automation (i.e., automatic or manual go-around, use of FMS lateral navigation or use of selected modes for missed approach) (d) Missed approach lateral navigation and vertical profile (e.g., speed limitations, airspace restrictions, potential obstacles, terrain features) (e) Intentions (i.e., second approach or diversion) 1. If a second approach is intended, discuss the type of approach if a different runway or type of approach is planned. 2. Confirm the minimum diversion fuel.
Fcom SOP (A320) Apply the following three actions simultaneously: THRUST levers TOGA If TOGA thrust is not required, set the thrust levers to TOGA detent then retard the thrust levers as required. This enables to engage the GO-AROUND phase, with associated AP/FD modes. Note: If the thrust levers are not set briefly to TOGA detent, the FMS does not engage the GO AROUND phase, and flying over, or close to the airport (less than 7 nm) will sequence the Destination waypoint in the F-PLN.
ROTATION PERFORM Initiate rotation towards 15 ° of pitch with all engines operative (approximately 12.5° if one engine is out) to get a positive rate of climb then follow SRS Flight Director pitch orders. When near the ground, avoid excessive rotation rate in order to prevent a tail strike. GO AROUND ANNOUNCE Note: The MCDU PERF page automatically switches to the GO AROUND phase. FLAPS lever SELECT AS RQRD Retract one step of flaps. Fcom SOP (A320)
FMA CHECK AND ANNOUNCE Check the FMA on the PFD. The following modes are displayed: MAN TOGA/SRS/ GA TRK/A/THR (in blue). NAV MODE SELECT For RNP AR, NAV mode must be engaged immediately (minimum height 100 ft). POSITIVE CLIMB ANNOUNCE LDG GEAR UP ORDER Fcom SOP (A320)
L/G lever SELECT UP NAV or HDG mode AS RQRD AP AS RQRD Note: Go-around may be achieved with both AP engaged. Whenever any other mode engages AP 2 disengages. Fcom SOP (A320)
Instructor Guide (A320)
Instructor Guide (A320)
Instructor Guide (A320)
Instructor Guide (A320)
Instructor Guide (A320)
GO-AROUND AND MISSED APPROACH – ALL ENGINES OPERATING The go-around decision starts with the “GO AROUND’’ callout from the Commander or the PF. The go around procedure is executed by the PF. The duties of the pilots in case of a Commander’s go around decision is as explained OM Part A. Decision of any pilot will not be discussed and the go-around will be initiated immediately. Fcom/SOP (B737)
Fcom/SOP (B737) PF Call ‘’GO-AROUND, FLAPS 15, SET GO AROUND THRUST’’. Press TO/GA, and push the thrust lever forward positively to ensure G/A thrust is achieved. If dual autopilot approach: Check the aircraft rotates to Go Around attitude, read FMA and call ‘’GO-AROUND, TO GA’’ If single autopilot approach: Rotate to GO-AROUND attitude, read the FMA. PM Sets and checks the GO AROUND thrust and call ‘’GO AROUND THRUST SET’’ If the thrust approaching GA thrust, sets Flap 15 and call ’’FLAPS 15’’
Fcom/SOP (B737) PF When positive rate of climb is indicated call ‘’ GEAR UP’’ Call any roll mode ‘’SET LNAV’’, ‘’SET HDG’’ if manual flight. If autopilot is engaged set roll mode and call ‘’LNAV’’, ‘’HDG’’ Call ‘’CHECKED’’ press N1 (if autopilot engaged) and call ‘’N1’’. Call ‘’CHECKED’’ and call ‘’SET N1’’ if manual flight. Call ‘’AFTER TAKEOFF CHECKLIST’’PM When positive rate of climb call ‘’POSITIVE RATE’’ Call ‘’400’’ Set the roll mode and call ‘’LNAV’’, ‘’HDG’’ At minimum flap retraction altitude call ‘’ FLAP RETRACTION ALTITUDE’’ Monitor speed and select flaps as requested.
REJECTED LANDING A rejected landing is defined as a go-around maneuver initiated below the minima. Once the decision is made to reject the landing, the flight crew must be committed to proceed with the go-around maneuver and not be tempted to retard the thrust levers in a late decision to complete the landing. TOGA thrust must be applied but a delayed flap retraction should be considered. If the aircraft is on the runway when thrust is applied, a CONFIG warning will be generated if the flaps are in CONF full. The landing gear should be retracted when a positive climb is established with no risk of further touch down. Climb out as for a standard go-around. In any case, if reverse thrust has been applied, a full stop landing must be completed. FCTM
Pas Geçme Sırasında Olası Zorluklar
AP/FD GO-AROUND PHASE ACTIVATION The go-around phase is activated when the thrust levers are set to the TOGA detent, the full forward thrust levers position, provided the flap lever is selected to Flap 1 or greater. The FDs bars are displayed automatically and SRS and GA TRK modes engage. The missed approach becomes the active F-PLN and the previously flown approach is strung back into the F-PLN. For the go-around, the appropriate flight reference is the attitude, because go- around is a dynamic maneuver. Therefore, if the "bird" is on, it is automatically removed and the FD bars automatically replace the FPD. If TOGA thrust is not required during a go-around for any reason, e.g. an early go- around ordered by ATC, it is essential that thrust levers are set momentarily but without delay, to the TOGA detent, the full forward thrust levers position, in order to ensure proper activation of the Go-Around phase (guidance modes and FMS flight phase). FCTM
If this is not done: ‐ The FMS remains in the Approach phase, and ‐ Since the Go-Around phase is not active, the FMS does not automatically restring the approach procedure in the active F-PLN, and ‐ The active F-PLN is neither modified, nor erased, and ‐ When at the destination airfield, the FMS sequences the F-PLN and the aircraft flies the Missed Approach procedure (the Missed Approach becomes green on the ND and on the MCDU F-PLN page), and ‐ At the end of the Missed Approach procedure, when all the waypoints are sequenced, the active F-PLN becomes "PPOS - DISCONT". FCTM
Fly by Wire ve Konvansiyonel Uçak Farkı
OPERATIONS MANUAL PART-B NON-TYPE (G) If adequate visual references are not acquired when reaching DA(H)/MDA(H): (1)Initiate a go-around climb (2)Be sure correct go-around configuration set (flaps, landing gear) (3)Avoid excessive control inputs, (high pitch low speed etc) (4) Continue on the approach track until over the MAP (to guarantee obstacle clearance during the go-around) and fly the published missed approach procedure. No turn should be initiated before reaching the missed approach point and, if a minimum altitude is indicated on the approach chart, until the indicated altitude has been reached. (There is no restriction to fly over MAP at an altitude/height greater than that published in the procedure)