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Downloaded from www.avhf.com Approach and Landing Accidents Reducing the Risk Presented by Bryan W. Neville Aviation Safety Inspector.

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Presentation on theme: "Downloaded from www.avhf.com Approach and Landing Accidents Reducing the Risk Presented by Bryan W. Neville Aviation Safety Inspector."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Downloaded from Approach and Landing Accidents Reducing the Risk Presented by Bryan W. Neville Aviation Safety Inspector

3 Downloaded from Risk Awareness u The key is Understanding

4 Downloaded from Types of Accidents u CFIT –Mountains/Hills u Landing Long u Landing Short u Landing Hard u Runway Excursions

5 Downloaded from Causal Factors u 1. Omission of Action or Inappropriate Action by the Flight Crew u (1. For Air Carriers: “Poor Professional Judgment”) u 2. Lack of Positional Awareness-Horizontal u 3. Failure to Crosscheck and Coordinate u 4. Lack of Positional Awareness-Vertical u 5. Poor Aircraft Handling u 6. Slowed/Delayed Crew Action

6 Downloaded from Risk Awareness u Flight Crew u Airport Services and Equipment u Approach u Go-around u Environment u Aircraft Equipment

7 Downloaded from Flight Crew u Duty Period –Reduced Alertness –Fatigue u Flight Hours –Sedentary Activity u Number in Crew –Single Pilot –Two Pilot –Additional Crewmembers

8 Downloaded from Crew Briefing u Single Pilot –Say it out loud! u Single Pilot with Passenger(s) u Two Pilot

9 Downloaded from Airport Services and Equipment u Approach Radar Service –Minimum Vectoring Altitude u Tower Service –“I’m unfamiliar with the area” u Local Weather Report –Operating at the Time of Arrival –AWOS/ASOS/ATIS/Observer u Familiar/Unfamiliar Airport –Physical Situation

10 Downloaded from Airport Services and Equipment u Familiar/Unfamiliar Procedures –Landmarks/Obstruction Avoidance/Noise u Approach and Runway Lights –Review AIM u Approach Slope Guidance –VASI –PAPI –ILS u Foreign Destination –Language

11 Downloaded from Approach u Visual Approach –Day vs. Night u Nonprecision Approach –Step-down Fixes –Circling Procedure u Runway Change u No Published STAR

12 Downloaded from Go-around u Go-around –Terminating an approach to land, for any reason u Missed Approach –Termination of an Instrument Approach u Rejected Landing –Terminating an approach to land, after the crew has made the decision to land u Rejected Landing with Power at Idle u Balked Landing

13 Downloaded from Environment u Terrain –Mountainous –Hilly –Flat, but Sloping u Lots of Lights u Lack of Lights

14 Downloaded from Environment u Visibility Restrictions –Darkness –Fog –Haze –IMC –Low Light (No Moon) –Mist –Smoke –Looking into the Sun

15 Downloaded from Environment u Visual Illusions –“Black Hole” –Sloping Terrain –Wet Runway –Whiteout/Snow

16 Downloaded from Environment u Wind Conditions –Crosswind –Gusts –Tailwind –Wind Shear –Microburst

17 Downloaded from Environment u Runway Conditions –Ice –Slush –Snow –Water u Cold Temperature Effects –True Altitude lower than Indicated Altitude u Density Altitude –Turns to Final

18 Downloaded from Aircraft Equipment u GPWS/EGPWS/GCAS/TAWS u Radio Altimeter –Always set 200 Feet or Higher u TCAS u Wind Shear Warning System u Altimeter u Vertical Speed Indicator u GPS/Moving Maps

19 Downloaded from Summary u Almost all Approach and Landing Accidents are Pilot Induced. u Almost all Approach and Landing Accidents are Preventable. u Pilots should remember that all flights end with the aircraft touching the ground. –How they touch is up to the pilot!

20 Downloaded from Any Questions?


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