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CONTROLLED FLIGHT INTO TERRAIN C F I T. DEFINITION AN EVENT WHERE A MECHANICALLY NORMALLY FUNCTIONING AIRPLANE IS INADVERTENTLY FLOWN INTO THE GROUND,

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Presentation on theme: "CONTROLLED FLIGHT INTO TERRAIN C F I T. DEFINITION AN EVENT WHERE A MECHANICALLY NORMALLY FUNCTIONING AIRPLANE IS INADVERTENTLY FLOWN INTO THE GROUND,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CONTROLLED FLIGHT INTO TERRAIN C F I T

2 DEFINITION AN EVENT WHERE A MECHANICALLY NORMALLY FUNCTIONING AIRPLANE IS INADVERTENTLY FLOWN INTO THE GROUND, WATER, OR AN OBSTACLE

3 OVERVIEW FOR MANAGEMENT

4 INTRODUCTION CFIT CONTINUES TO BE THE DOMINANT REASON FOR ACCIDENTS INVOLVING HULL LOSSES AND FATALITIES 9000 PEOPLE HAVE DIED WORLD WIDE BECAUSE OF CFIT AT CURRENT RATE CFIT COULD CAUSE ONE MAJOR AIRLINE HULL LOSS, AND ASSOCIATED FATALITIES, PER WEEK BY YEAR 2010 IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT CFIT ACCIDENT RATE BE LOWERED OPERATORS MUST BE MADE AWARE OF THE CFIT PROBLEM AS WELL AS TRAINED TO AVOID THESE ACCIDENTS

5 GENERAL GOALS & OBJECTIVES EDUCATE BOTH OPERATIONAL & MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL PROVIDE SPECIFIC, APPROPRIATE EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL PROPOSE AN EXAMPLE TRAINING PROGRAM PROVIDE MANAGERS WITH AN EFFECTIVE CFIT AVOIDANCE STRATEGY

6 RESOURCE UTILIZATION OPERATORS SHOULD USE BOTH THE ACADEMIC AND SIMULATOR TRAINING PROGRAM TO ACHIEVE A WELL-BALANCED, EFFECTIVE CFIT TRAINING PROGRAM ALLOCATION OF TRAINING TIME FOR CFIT WITHIN BOTH RECURRENT AND TRANSITION PROGRAM WILL VARY WITH EACH OPERATOR

7 DECISION MAKERS GUIDE AIRLINE MANAGEMENT CREATES THE SAFETY CULTURE OF THE ORGANIZATION. THIS CULTURE THEN AFFECTS EVERYONE WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS ARE PREVENTABLE THROUGH EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT: DOING SO IS COST EFFECTIVE

8 C F I T ACCIDENTS

9 HULL-LOSS ACCIDENTS FOR WORLDWIDE COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

10 CFIT HULL-LOSS ACCIDENTS FOR WORLDWIDE COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

11 WORLDWIDE AIRLINE ACCIDENTS CLASSIFIED BY TYPE - 1991 THROUGH 1995

12 WORLDWIDE AIRLINE FATALITIES CLASSIFIED BY TYPE OF ACCIDENT-1991 THROUGH 1995

13 POSITIVE RESULTS OF GROUND WARNING SYSTEMS (GPWS)

14 CFIT ACCIDENT PER YEAR-USA AND WORLD CARRIERS

15 GPWS INITIAL RELIABILITY AND FOLLOW- ON IMPROVEMENTS

16 FLIGHT PATH PROFILE: 707-300, Santa Maria, Azores, February 8, 1989

17 INDUSTRY SUPPORT REQUIRED FOR GPWS

18 WORLD AIRLINE JET FLEET EQUIPPED WITH GPWS

19 COMMERCIAL JET CFIT ACCIDENTS; 7-YEAR PERIOD- 1989 THROUGH 1995

20 CFIT AND FLIGHT CREW

21 CAUSES FOR CFIT ACCIDENTS

22 PRIMARY CAUSE FACTORS FOR HULL-LOSS ACCIDENTS FOR WORLDWIDE COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

23 FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO CFIT ALTIMETER SETTING UNITS OF MEASUREMENT ALTIMETER SETTING SAFE ALTITUDES AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL FLIGHT CREW COMPLACENCY PROCEDURAL Contd.

24 PERCENTAGE OF ALL ACCIDENTS BY PHASE OF FLIGHT AND THE PERCENTAGE OF FLIGHT TIME THAT THE FLIGHT CREW IS EXPOSED DURING THAT PHASE

25 MAP LOCATION OF CFIT ACCIDENTS/INCIDENTS

26 FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO CFIT DESCENT, APPROACH AND LANDING

27 PRIMARY CAUSE FACTORS FOR HULL-LOSS ACCIDENTS FOR WORLDWIDE COMMERCIAL JET FLEET

28 GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION OF CFIT ACCIDENTS

29

30

31

32 FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO C F I T AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEM TRAINING

33 C F I T PREVENTION MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE WARNING SYSTEM (MSAWS)

34

35 C F I T PREVENTION MSAWS CREW BRIEFING AUTOFLIGHT SYSTEMS ROUTE & DESTINATION FAMILIARIZATION ALTITUDE AWARENESS USE OF CALL OUTS GPWS WARNING ESCAPE MANEUVER CHARTS TRAINING

36 EXAMPLE CFIT TRAINING PROGRAM

37 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAM

38 RECOGNIZE FACTORS THAT LEAD TO CFIT ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS KNOW PREVENTION STRATEGIES THAT WILL ENSURE SAFE FLIGHT IMPROVE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS TO AVOID CFIT LEARN ESCAPE MANEUVER AND TECHNIQUES TO ENHANCE POSSIBILITY OF SURVIVAL

39 CFIT SIMULATOR TRAINING PROGRAM

40 SIMULATOR TRAINING OBJECTIVES RECOGNIZE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS THAT CAN LEAD TO A CFIT INCIDENT MAINTAIN PROPER HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL SITUATIONAL AWARENESS COMMUNICATE & COORDINATE ON FLIGHT DECK DURING CRITICAL PHASES OF FLIGHT RECOGNIZE A POTENTIAL CFIT SITUATION AND TAKE APPROPRIATE ACTION GAIN CONFIDENCE IN THE GPWS PERFORM A SUCCESSFUL CFIT ESCAPE MANEUVER

41 PILOT SIMULATOR BRIEFING REVIEW CONTRIBUTING FACTORS AND CAUSES EXPLAIN NEED FOR GOOD FLIGHT CREW COORDINATION DISCUSS GPWS OPERATING MODES REVIEW AIRPLANE ESCAPE MANEUVER / PROCEDURE AND PILOT TECHNIQUES DISCUSS COMMON FLIGHT CREW ERRORS

42 GENERIC GPWS WARNING ESCAPE MANEUVER REACT IMMEDIATELY TO A GPWS WARNING POSITIVELY APPLY MAXIMUM THRUST AND ROTATE TO THE APPROPRIATE PITCH FOR YOUR AEROPLANE PULL UP WITH WINGS LEVEL TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE ALWAYS RESPECT STICK SHAKER

43 GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING MODES (MARK VI)

44 GPWS MODE 1

45

46 GPWS MODE 2

47 GPWS MODE 3 Fig.4

48 GPWS MODE 4

49 Fig. 4

50 GPWS MODE 5

51 GPWS MODE 6

52 ICAO ACTION ON CFIT PREVENTION EXPANDED GPWS CARRIAGE REQUIREMENTS (31 DECEMBER 1998) MINIMUM GPWS MODE REQUIREMENTS (31 DECEMBER 1998) NON-PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR INSTRUMENT APPROACH CHARTS AND OTHER CHARTS (SID, STAR, AND TERMINAL AREA)

53 ICAO ACTION ON CFIT PREVENTION (2) FUTURE PUBLICATION OF THE CFIT PREVENTION PROGRAMME FUTURE MAJOR EFFORT TO ENSURE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME IN INTERNATIONAL AND IN DOMESTIC OPERATIONS


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