Presentation on theme: "Unit 5: The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era (1789 – 1815)"— Presentation transcript:
Unit 5: The French Revolution and Napoleonic Era (1789 – 1815)
The Five “Great Powers” of Europe (Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, & France) + minor delegates met for 8 months in Vienna, Austria during the winter of 1814-15. The goal was to create a politically balanced and stable Europe to ensure peace in the aftermath of Napoleon’s collapse. To work for a new European order! One more time: Who am I?
The Austrian Foreign Minister was the most influential delegate at Vienna. He mistrusted democracy and saw Napoleon’s rise to power as an example of its failure. He wanted to go back to the old ways before chaos. He wanted to restore law & order by: 1. Weaken France by surrounding with strong nations. 2. Restore the Balance of Power to provide security from war. 3. Restore Europe’s Legitimate Monarchs & Royal Families to the thrones they held before Napoleon’s conquests.
The Congress wanted to surround France with stronger countries. 1. Austrian Netherlands + Dutch Republic = Kingdom of the Netherlands 2. 39 German states = German Confederation 3. Switzerland became independent 4. Sardinia in Italy gained Genoa
They wanted to weaken it, but not leave it powerless. Feared France may want revenge one day. If they broke up France, another nation may take its territory and become too powerful.
They wanted to remove Napoleon’s puppets & put legitimate monarchs & royal families back in power. Louis XVIII back again in France, Spain, and several Italian states had legitimate monarchs restored.
Britain & France had constitutional monarchies, but Austria, Prussia, & Russia were still absolute monarchies. Czar Alexander I of Russia, Emperor Francis I of Austria & King Frederick William III of Prussia formed the Holy Alliance to combat forces of revolution by basing relations with other nations on Christian principles.
Metternich called for the Concert of Europe, a series of alliances, that ensured nations would come to each other’s aid if more revolutions broke out. They wanted to quell the spirit of the French Revolution. Although the French experiment was unsuccessful, the ideals of liberty, equality, & fraternity would not die and lead to more upheaval in 1830 & 1848.
It influenced politics for the next 100 years. France was weakened & Great Britain & Prussia were strengthened. None of the great powers went to war against each other for the next 40 years. Nationalism would spread in Italy, Germany, & Greece as well as in Spain’s new world colonies as many declared independence. Similar to the United Nations (1945) today and its goal of collective security to keep the peace.