Kieven Rus’ first Eastern Slavic state, Kievan Rus’ late 9 th to mid 13 th centuries
Cossacks large influence on Ukrainian culture Bohdan Khmelnytsky was a famous Cossack who tried to unite Ukrainians
Taras Shevchenko a writer and artist who lived in the 1800s helped form Ukrainian national consciousness inspired revival of Ukrainian culture. called for more autonomy for the regions served time in jail for his beliefs. Today he has become an almost iconic figure
Divided People Prior to World War I, the area that is now Ukrainian Republic was divided between the Russian and Austro- Hungarian Empires Successor States after the war did not include Ukraine
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) created in 1922 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR) was one of the founding Republics
The Polish–Ukrainian War 1918 and 1919 played a role in the development of Ukrainian nationalism Ukraine was defeated deepened feelings of patriotism Eastern Galicia later became part of Ukrainian SSR and remains a part of the Ukrainian Republic today.
Expressions of Ukrainian National Culture were allowed under the policy of Korenization until 1930
Ukrainian National Orthodox Church important national symbol for Ukrainians Created in the 1920s Allowed to flourish to undermine Russian Orthodox Church
Stalin reverses Korenization state identifies Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism as major problem
End of the Soviet Union Fifteen new countries created when Soviet Union disbanded at the end of 1991 Ukraine becomes independent nation- state
Challenges of Independence Orange Revolution in 2004-2005
Relationship to Russia Ukrainians struggle to define their relationship with Russia
Ukraine Today Orthodox Christianity Eastern Catholicism Both important influence on culture
Ukrainian Cultural Practices food preparation embroidery weaving songs stories lace-making pysanky dance music "Razom nas bahato, nas ne podolaty"
Russian and Soviet Nationalism/Ultra Nationalism and Ukraine
What is Ultranationalism? authoritarian organizations/governments anti-immigrant scapegoating indoctrination propaganda
Russian Empire Romanov Dynasty Orthodox Church Russification promoted Russian Culture throughout the empire
Foreign Policy the actions a nation takes in relation to other nation-states or international organizations
The Holodomor and Foreign Policy What policies should Canada and/or the international community have changed? Could actions have been taken to prevent or lessen the effects of the Holodomor? What principles should we follow in creating our foreign policies? Does humanitarianism trump national sovereignty in the international system? Is there a point at which the international community should intervene in the affairs of another country? Who should make these decisions?
To what extent should the government be involved in the economy?
Communism government control of the means of production
Historical Controversy Was the Soviet government intent on destroying Ukrainian nationalism? Should the victims of the Holodomor be seen as primarily Ukrainians or as peasants? How many people actually died in Ukraine during the Holodomor? How many people died in other Soviet Republics during this time due to collectivization? What motivated the decisions of the central government / Stalin?
Consensus a famine occurred in Ukraine between 1932-33 the primary cause was forced collectivization most of the victims were ethnic Ukrainian
Genocide the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, Race (classification of humans), religious, or national group Raphael Lemkin developed and promoted concept of genocide
The Holodomor Was a GenocideWas Not a Genocide government’s attack on political, cultural and religious elites the government’s destruction of the Ukrainian churches policies aimed specifically at Ukraine that removed foodstuffs from starving peasants the dispersion of Ukrainians to other parts of the Soviet Union huge influx of Russians to Ukrainian SSR government’s stated policy of elimination of the Kulaks as a social class and the categorization of so many Ukrainians as Kulaks millions of non-Ukrainian Soviet citizens also died during the famine disregard for the lives of the people in the pursuit of economic goals Soviet Union saw such tremendous loss of life in its first 30 years due to the totalitarianism and the Holodomor is best interpreted as part of this Stalin alone is believed to be responsible for at least 20 million Soviet citizens – some estimates go as high as 60 million
Recognition of the Holodomor 2006 - Ukrainian parliament pass law recognizing Holodomor as genocide 2008 - European Parliament recognizes Holodomor as crime against humanity