Presentation on theme: "Key Terms – Revolution in Russia Revolution of 1905 The Duma Russian Revolution of 1917 Vladimir Lenin Communism Bolsheviks Reds vs. Whites War Communism."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms – Revolution in Russia Revolution of 1905 The Duma Russian Revolution of 1917 Vladimir Lenin Communism Bolsheviks Reds vs. Whites War Communism Atheism New Economic Policy Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Joseph Stalin Command Economy/Planned Economy Five Year Plan Collectivization Gulag
Revolution of 1905 The defeat in the Russo- Japanese War brought civil unrest over lack of industry and modernity, which the Russian citizens sought; many formed labor unions and struck. Tensions also increased over Poles and Ukranians seeking to create independent states; many marched on the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. Soldiers would fire upon the crowd in what would become a massacre.
Results of the Revolution of 1905 A violent revolt would against the reign of Czar Nicholas II would occur forcing the czar to take actions to placate the crowd: He would create the Duma → a Russian parliament The Duma would be under his control and Nicholas II would prevent it from representing the general will.
Background to the Russian Revolution Russian entrance into World War I first served to unify the people of Russia but as the defeats and death tolls began to pile up, the Russians lost their fervor for the war. Czar Nicholas II would not end the war and in March 1917, he would be deposed. Moderate leaders would attempt to control Russia through a temporary government but they too would not end the war forcing another revolution in 1917 led by Vladimir Lenin.
Vladimir I. Lenin Lenin believed in a more violent version of socialism known as communism. Communism → form of socialism that encouraged the use of violent revolt to overthrow the capitalist system. Lenin encouraged the peasantry to revolt against the nobility and take their share of land from the government; if peasants joined his caused they were promised land in return.
The Bolsheviks and Reds v. Whites Lenin's political party, the Bolsheviks (communists) slowly took over control of Russia and by 1918, was able to gain enough control to pull Russia out of World War I. The Russians would cede a large chunk of their land to Germany (most of their industries were located in those territories) in the Treaty of Brest-Litvosk. Civil War would erupt over complete control of Russia, this would be known as Reds v. Whites. Lenin would plunge Russia into War Communism as a result → government control of industries banks and railroads and the seizing of large amounts of crops from peasants under a communist government system.
Lenin's Government Workers were allowed to partake in Lenin's government but it would be limited by Lenin himself. Could elect representatives to a lawmaking body. Religious worship was discouraged, atheism became the official belief system → the belief that God does not exist. Class distinctions were forbidden, people could only refer to each other as comrade. Russia became a one party country, the Communist Party. Newspapers were censored The Romanovs were executed to prevent the Whites from re- establishing their rule.
Economic Changes Lenin would ease the hardship caused by civil war by introducing the New Economic Policy (NEP) The New Economic Policy stipulated: Peasants can sell surplus grain for profit Small manufacturers could regain control of their businesses Russia would also change its name to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) or the Soviet Union.
Joseph Stalin Upon the death of Lenin in 1924, Joseph Stalin would take control of the Soviet Union. He replaced the NEP with a command or planned economy → economic system in which the government dictates what is made, how much is made, and what it is sold for.
Five Year Plan #1 (1927) Stalin sought to catch up to the major industrialized countries within ten years to make the country economically viable. He would do this through two Five Year Plans → massive goals set forth to be accomplished in five years through very rigorous actions. The first five year plan was to increase industrial output by 250 % and agricultural output by 150% To make this drastic jump happen, he took over all of the industries and stripped peasants of their land. Many peasants were relocated to collectivized farms, factories, mines, or construction sites.
Collectivization of Farms - Peasants resisted the collectivization of farms → government seizure of small farms to be merged into larger farms. - Many burned their land as a means of preventing Stalin from acquiring it. - Stalin would respond by engaging in terror famine or allowing his citizens to starve to death for their actions. - Regardless of the cost, Stalin declared the first five year plan a success in three years and planned his next five year plan.
Five Year Plan #2 - Stalin would launch his second five year plan in 1933, this time he would focus on becoming economically independent from the west. - He would increase steel output and heavy industry at the cost of consumer goods and would lead the Soviet Union to becoming one of the world's leaders in industrial production second only to Germany and the United States.