2 Ch 3.1 – Chemistry of LifeEverything around you is made of matter and energy1. Matter – anything that has mass and takes up space2. Energy – can hold matter together or break it apart
3 Atoms – make up matter Nucleus contains protons & neutrons Outside the nucleus are electrons which are involved in chemical reactions between atoms
4 Element – substance made of only one kind of atom a) cannot be broken down into a simpler form by ordinary chemical reactionsb) arranged in a chart called the periodic table of elements
5 Compounds – when 2 or more elements combine a) Have different properties than the individual elements they are made ofb) 2 types:1. Molecular compound (molecules) – formed when different atoms share electrons; covalent bond2. Ionic compound (ions) – formed when different atoms exchange electrons;ionic bond
6 Mixture – combination of substances in which each substance retains their own properties 1. Heterogenous – substances not spread evenly; can see individual componentsExample: salad
7 Homogenous – substances spread evenly; cannot see individual components a) Solution – homogenous mixture in which two or more substances are mixed evenly and will not separateexample: sweat & cytoplasm
8 b) Suspension – forms when a liquid has b) Suspension – forms when a liquid has another substance evenly spread throughout it , however if left undisturbed the substance in the mixture will sink to the bottomexample: blood
9 C. Organic Compounds – contain carbon and hydrogen and are usually associated with living things or things that were once alive
10 4 groups of organic compounds make up organisms: Carbohydrates – supply energy for cell processesa) Sugars – small molecules that give quick bursts of energy
11 b) Starches – large molecules that can b) Starches – large molecules that can supply energy for longer periods of time however if not used will turn to fat tissue
12 c) Fiber (cellulose) – molecule from plant cell walls that cannot be broken down for energy by animals however is needed to keep digestive tract running smoothly
13 Lipids – store and release large amounts of energy for the body a) fats, oils & waxesb) also needed as body insulation and to cushion internal organs
14 Proteins – are building blocks of many structures in the body; some obtained through diet while others made in the bodya) make up hair, nails and cell membranesb) Enzymes – special proteins that regulate chemical reactionsc) Amino acids – molecules that proteins are composed of
15 Nucleic acids – store important coded information in cells a) DNA – carries hereditary information inside the nucleus of all cellsb) RNA – used to make proteins
16 Inorganic Compounds – made from elements other than carbon; found in nonliving substances but are still needed by living things1. Water – in blood and cytoplasm2. Calcium phosphate – in bones for strength3. Hydrochloric acid – to break down food in stomach4. Sodium & Potassium salts – to send messages along nerve cells
17 Importance of Water1. Living things are composed of more than 50% water and depend on it to survive2. All chemical reactions in living things take place in water solutions3. Most living things use water to transport substances in their bodies
18 Ch 3.2 – Moving Cellular Materials A. Cells have a permeable membrane that regulates what goes into and out of the cell
19 B. Passive Transport – the movement of substances through a cell membrane without the use of energy
20 1. Diffusion – when molecules move away from areas where there are more of them into areas where there are fewer of them.
21 Stops when the molecules of one substance are spread evenly throughout the other substance and equilibrium occurs.
22 2. Osmosis – the diffusion of water through a cell membrane
23 3. Facilitated Diffusion – moves large substances across the cell membrane using transport proteins
24 C. Active Transport – requires energy to move a substance through a cell membrane; goes against the natural flow
25 1. Endocytosis – the process in which a substance is taken into a cell by surrounding it with the cell membrane, forming a sphere called a vesicle.
26 2. Exocytosis – the process in which the membrane of the vesicle fuses with cell’s membrane and the vesicle’s contents are released.
27 Ch 3.3 – Energy for LifeCells use chemical reactions to change the chemical energy stored in food into forms needed to perform activities (energy)1. Metabolism – the total of all chemical reactions in an organism.2. The chemical reactions of metabolism require enzymes.
28 B. Photosynthesis – the process that plants and some other organisms use to convert light energy into chemical energy or sugars (glucose) to be used as food 1. Producers – organisms that make their own food 2. Consumers – organisms that can’t make their own food
29 3. Chlorophyll – pigment used in photosynthesis to capture light energy from the sun which is then used to produce glucose and oxygen6CO H2O + E C6H12O O2Carbon DioxideWaterEnergyGlucoseOxygen
30 C. Respiration – the process in which chemical reactions break down food molecules into simpler substances and release stored energy 1. Respiration of carbohydrates begins in the cytoplasm a) Carb’s are broken down into glucose molecules b) Each glucose is then broken down to release energy
31 2. Respiration then moves to the mitochondria a) The 2 simpler molecules are broken down again releasing more energy b) This process uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide & water as waste products6O2 + C6H12O CO H E
32 D. Fermentation – cells that do not have enough 02 for respiration use this process to release some of the stored energy in glucose molecules 1. Entire process takes place in the cytoplasm 2. Produces lactic acid as waste
33 E. Photosynthesis & Respiration are opposite processes 1 E. Photosynthesis & Respiration are opposite processes 1. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide & water to produce sugar & oxygen 2. Respiration uses sugars & oxygen and produces carbon dioxide & water