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How Cells Function CHAPTER the BIG idea CHAPTER OUTLINE All cells need energy and materials for life processes. Chemical reactions take place inside cells.

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Presentation on theme: "How Cells Function CHAPTER the BIG idea CHAPTER OUTLINE All cells need energy and materials for life processes. Chemical reactions take place inside cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Cells Function CHAPTER the BIG idea CHAPTER OUTLINE All cells need energy and materials for life processes. Chemical reactions take place inside cells. 2.1 Cells capture and release energy. 2.2 Materials move across the cell’s membranes. 2.3

2 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME All cells are made of the same elements. Cells contain four types of large molecules— Chemical reactions take place inside cells. 2.1 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE carbohydrate chemical reaction lipid carbohydrates, carbohydrates protein nucleic acid

3 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME All cells are made of the same elements. Cells contain four types of large molecules— Chemical reactions take place inside cells. 2.1 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE carbohydrate chemical reaction lipid carbohydrates, lipids protein nucleic acid

4 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME All cells are made of the same elements. Cells contain four types of large molecules— Chemical reactions take place inside cells. 2.1 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE carbohydrate chemical reaction lipid carbohydrates, lipids, proteins proteins protein nucleic acid

5 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME All cells are made of the same elements. Cells contain four types of large molecules— Chemical reactions take place inside cells. 2.1 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE carbohydrate chemical reaction lipid carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids—that support cell function. About two thirds of every cell is water. The properties of water are important to cell function. nucleic acids protein nucleic acid

6 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME chemical reaction 2.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Chemical reactions take place inside cells. The process by which chemical changes occur. In a chemical reaction, atoms are rearranged, and chemical bonds are broken and formed. carbohydrate chemical reaction lipid protein nucleic acid

7 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A type of carbon-based molecule in living things. Carbohydrates include sugars and starches used for energy or as structural materials. Carbohydrate molecules contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. carbohydrate 2.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Chemical reactions take place inside cells. carbohydrate chemical reaction lipid protein nucleic acid

8 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A type of carbon-based molecule in living things. Lipids include fats, oils, and waxes used for energy or as structural materials. Lipids are made up of subunits of fatty acids. lipid 2.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Chemical reactions take place inside cells. carbohydrate chemical reaction lipid protein nucleic acid

9 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A macromolecule in living things that is made up of smaller molecules called amino acids. Proteins control the chemical activity of a cell and support growth and repair. protein 2.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Chemical reactions take place inside cells. carbohydrate chemical reaction lipid protein nucleic acid

10 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME One of several carbon-based molecules that carry an organism’s genetic code. One of the nucleic acids (DNA) contains the information needed to construct proteins. RNA, a second type of nucleic acid, translates the information into proteins. nucleic acid 2.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Chemical reactions take place inside cells. carbohydrate chemical reaction lipid protein nucleic acid

11 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME chemical energy cellular respiration Cells capture and release energy. 2.2 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE photosynthesis chlorophyll glucose Light Energy oxygen glucose Photosynthesis carbon dioxide Cellular Respiration water Chemical Energy All cells need energy. Some cells capture light energy through photosynthesis. All cells release chemical energy from glucose. Cellular respiration and fermentation are two ways that cells release energy from glucose. fermentation

12 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Energy that is stored in the chemical composition of matter. The amount of chemical energy in a substance depends on the types and arrangement of its atoms. When wood or gasoline burns, chemical energy produces heat. The energy used by the cells in your body comes from chemical energy in the foods you eat. chemical energy 2.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Cells capture and release energy. chemical energy cellular respiration photosynthesis chlorophyll glucose fermentation

13 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A sugar molecule that is a major energy source for most cells, produced by the process of photosynthesis. glucose 2.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Cells capture and release energy. chemical energy cellular respiration photosynthesis chlorophyll glucose fermentation

14 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The process by which green plants and other producers use simple compounds and energy from light to make sugar, an energy-rich compound. This is an endothermic process in which light is absorbed and used to change carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. photosynthesis 2.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Cells capture and release energy. chemical energy cellular respiration photosynthesis chlorophyll glucose fermentation

15 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A light-absorbing chemical, a pigment, that traps the energy in sunlight and converts it to chemical energy. Found in chloroplasts of plant cells and the cells of other photosynthetic organisms. chlorophyll 2.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Cells capture and release energy. chemical energy cellular respiration photosynthesis chlorophyll glucose fermentation

16 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A process in which cells use oxygen to release energy stored in sugars. cellular respiration 2.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Cells capture and release energy. chemical energy cellular respiration photosynthesis chlorophyll glucose fermentation

17 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A chemical process by which cells release energy from sugar when no oxygen is present. fermentation 2.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Cells capture and release energy. chemical energy cellular respiration photosynthesis chlorophyll glucose fermentation

18 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Materials move across the cell’s membranes. 2.3 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE Passive transport is the movement of materials from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Diffusion and osmosis are examples of passive transport. Equal amounts of oxygen move into and out of the cell. diffusion passive transport osmosis active transport

19 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Materials move across the cell’s membranes. 2.3 SECTION OUTLINE SECTION OUTLINE Passive transport is the movement of materials from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Diffusion and osmosis are examples of passive transport. Active transport is the movement of materials from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Cells need energy to perform active transport. energy salt inside cell diffusion passive transport osmosis active transport

20 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The tendency of a substance to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. diffusion 2.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Materials move across the cell’s membranes. diffusion passive transport osmosis active transport

21 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The movement of materials through a membrane without any input of energy. passive transport 2.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Materials move across the cell’s membranes. diffusion passive transport osmosis active transport

22 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The movement of water through a membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. osmosis 2.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Materials move across the cell’s membranes. diffusion passive transport osmosis active transport

23 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME The process of using energy to move materials through a membrane. active transport 2.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Materials move across the cell’s membranes. diffusion passive transport osmosis active transport

24 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME I. Chemical reactions take place inside cells. A. All cells are made of the same elements. C. About two thirds of every cell is water. 2.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Chemical reactions take place inside cells. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids B. Large molecules support cell function. carbohydrate chemical reaction lipid protein nucleic acid 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

25 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME 2.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Cells capture and release energy. II. Cells capture and release energy. A. All cells need energy. B. Some cells capture light energy. 1. Cellular Respiration 2. Fermentation 3. Energy and Exercise chemical energy cellular respiration photosynthesis chlorophyll glucose fermentation C. All cells release energy.

26 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME III. Materials move across the cell’s membranes. A. Some materials move by diffusion. 1. Active Transport 2. Endocytosis B. Some transport requires energy. 2.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Materials move across the cell’s membranes. diffusion passive transport osmosis active transport 1. Concentration 2. Diffusion in Cells 3. Osmosis 3. Exocytosis C. Cell size affects transport.


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