Presentation on theme: "Chemistry of Life 1 The Nature of Matter Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Energy is anything that brings about change. Everything in."— Presentation transcript:
2 Chemistry of Life1The Nature of MatterMatter is anything that has mass and takes up space.Energy is anything that brings about change.Everything in your environment, including you, is made of matter.Energy can hold matter together or break it apart.
3 Chemistry in Life1AtomsAt the center of an atom is a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons.Although they have nearly equal masses, a proton has a positivecharge and a neutron has no charge.Outside the nucleus are electrons, each of which has a negative charge.Click image to view movie.
4 Chemistry in Life1AtomsElectrons are the part of the atom that is involved in chemical reactions.An atom is mostly empty space. Energy holds the parts of an atom together.
5 Chemistry in Life1ElementsWhen something is made up of only one kind of atom, it is called an element.An element can’t be broken down into a simpler form by chemical reactions.Scientists have given each element its own one- or two-letter symbol.
6 Chemistry in Life1ElementsAll elements are arranged in a chart known as the periodic table of elements.The table provides information about each element including its mass, how many protons it has, and its symbol.
8 Compounds and Molecules Chemistry in Life1Compounds and MoleculesCompounds are made up of two or more elements in exact proportions.For example, pure water is always made up of hydrogen atoms bonded to oxygen atoms in a ratio of two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.There are two types of compounds— molecular compounds and ionic compounds.
9 Chemistry in Life1Molecular CompoundsThe smallest part of a molecular compound is a molecule.A molecule is a group of atoms held together by the energy of chemical bonds.
10 Chemistry in Life1Molecular CompoundsWhen chemical reactions occur, chemical bonds break, atoms are rearranged, and new bonds form.The molecules produced are different from those that began the chemical reaction.
11 Chemistry in Life1Molecular CompoundsMolecular compounds form when different atoms share their outermost electrons. Twoatoms of hydrogen each can share one electron on one atom of oxygen to form one molecule of water.Water does not have the same properties as oxygen and hydrogen.
12 Chemistry in Life1IonsAtoms also combine because they’ve become positively or negatively charged.Atoms are usually neutral—they have no overall electric charge.When an atom loses an electron, it has more protons than electrons, so it becomes positively charged.
13 Chemistry in Life1IonsWhen an atom gains an electron, it has more electrons than protons, so it becomes negatively charged.Electrically charged atoms—positive or negative—are called ions.
14 Chemistry in Life1Ionic CompoundsIons of opposite charges attract one another to form electrically neutral compounds called ionic compounds.Table salt is made of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) ions.When they combine, a chlorine atom gains an electron from a sodium atom.The chlorine atom becomes a negatively charged ion, and the sodium atom becomes a positively charged ion.
15 Chemistry in Life1Ionic CompoundsThese oppositely charged ions then are attracted to each other and form the ionic compound sodium chloride, NaCl.
16 Chemistry in Life1Ionic CompoundsMessages are sent along your nerves as potassium and sodium ions move in and out of nerve cells.Calcium ions are important in causing your muscles to contract.
17 Chemistry in Life1MixturesA mixture is a combination of substances in which individual substances retain their own properties.
18 Chemistry in Life1MixturesMixtures can be solids, liquids, gases, or any combination of them.Most chemical reactions in living organisms take place in mixtures called solutions.
19 Mixtures 1 In a solution, two or more substances are mixed evenly. Chemistry in Life1MixturesIn a solution, two or more substances are mixed evenly.A suspension is formed when a liquid or a gas has another substance evenly spread throughout it.Unlike solutions, the substances in a suspension eventually sink to the bottom.
20 Chemistry in Life1Organic CompoundsAll living things are made up of compounds that are classified as organic or inorganic.Rocks and other nonliving things contain inorganic compounds.Organic Compounds always contain carbon and hydrogen and usually are associated with living things.
21 Chemistry in Life1Organic CompoundsOrganic molecules can contain hundreds or even thousands of atoms that can be arranged in many ways.
22 Chemistry in Life1Organic CompoundsFour groups of organic compounds make up all living things—carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
23 Chemistry in Life1CarbohydratesCarbohydrates are organic molecules that supply energy for cell processes.Sugars and starches are carbohydrates that cells use for energy.Some carbohydrates also are important parts of cell structures.
24 Lipids 1 Lipids do not mix with water. Chemistry in Life1LipidsLipids do not mix with water.Lipids such as fats and oils store and release even larger amounts of energy than carbohydrates do.One type of lipid, the phospholipid, is a major part of cell membranes.
25 Chemistry in Life1ProteinsProteins are made up of smaller molecules called amino acids.Proteins are the building blocks of many structures in organisms.Your muscles contain large amounts of protein.Proteins are scattered throughout cell membranes.Certain proteins called enzymes regulate nearly all chemical reactions in cells.
26 Chemistry in Life1Nucleic AcidsLarge organic molecules that store important coded information in cells are called nucleic acids.One nucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA—genetic material—is found in all cells at some point in their life.Another nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or RNA, is needed to make enzymes and other proteins.
27 Chemistry in Life1Inorganic CompoundsMost inorganic compounds are made from elements other than carbon.Generally inorganic molecules contain fewer atoms than organic molecules.Inorganic compounds are the source for many elements needed by living things.
28 Chemistry in Life1Inorganic CompoundsInorganic compounds can contain the elements nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.One of the most important inorganic compounds for living things is water.
29 Chemistry in Life1Importance of WaterLiving things are composed of more than 50 percent water and depend on water to survive.You can live for weeks without food but only a few days without water.
30 Chemistry in Life1Importance of WaterAlthough seeds and spores of plants, fungi, and bacteria can exist without water, they must have water if they are to grow and reproduce.
31 Chemistry in Life1Importance of WaterAll the chemical reactions in living things take place in water solutions, and most organisms use water to transport materials through their bodies.Plants use water to move minerals and sugars between roots and leaves.
32 Characteristics of Water Chemistry in Life1Characteristics of WaterThe atoms of a water molecule are arranged in such a way that the molecule has areas with different charges.Water molecules are like magnets.The negative part of a water molecule is attracted to the positive part of another water molecule just like the north pole of a magnet is attracted to the south pole of another magnet.
33 Characteristics of Water Chemistry in Life1Characteristics of WaterThis attraction, or force, between water molecules is why a film forms on the surface of water.The film is strong enough to support small insects because the forces between the water molecules are stronger than the force of gravity on the insect.
34 Characteristics of Water Chemistry in Life1Characteristics of WaterBecause water molecules are so strongly attracted to each other, the temperature of water changes slowly.The large percentage of water in living things acts like an insulator.The water in a cell helps keep its temperature constant, which allows life-sustaining chemical reactions to take place.
35 Characteristics of Water Chemistry in Life1Characteristics of WaterWhen water freezes, ice crystals form.In the crystals, each water molecule is spaced at a certain distance from all the others.Because this distance is greater in frozen water than in liquid water, ice floats on water.Bodies of water freeze from the top down.The floating ice provides insulation and allows living things to survive.
36 Section Check1Question 1_______ is anything that has mass and takes up space.AnswerThe answer is Matter. Everything in your environment is made of matter.
37 Question 2 Answer 1 A(n) _______ is made up of only one kind of atom. Section Check1Question 2A(n) _______ is made up of only one kind of atom.AnswerThe answer is element. An element can’t be broken down into a simpler form by chemical reactions.
38 Question 3 1 Which best describes the structure in this illustration? Section Check1Question 3Which best describes the structure in this illustration?A. atomB. elementC. molecularcompoundD. ionic compound
39 Section Check1AnswerThe answer is C. Molecular compounds form when different atoms share their outermost electrons.
40 Trapping and Using Energy Energy for Life3Trapping and Using EnergyAll of the activities of an organism involve chemical reactions in some way.The total of all chemical reactions in an organism is called metabolism.The chemical reactions of metabolism need enzymes.
41 Trapping and Using Energy Energy for Life3Trapping and Using EnergyEnzymes in cells cause a change, but the enzyme is not changed and can be used again.Enzymes also can cause molecules to join.Without the right enzyme, a chemical reaction in a cell cannot take place.Each chemical reaction in a cell requires a specific enzyme.Click image to view movie.
42 Energy for Life3PhotosynthesisLiving things are divided into two groups— producers and consumers—based on how they obtain their food.Organisms that make their own food, such as plants, are called producers.Organisms that cannot make their own food are called consumers.
43 Energy for Life3PhotosynthesisPlants and many other producers can convert light energy into another kind of energy—chemical energy.The process they use is called photosynthesis.During photosynthesis, producers use light energy to make sugars, which can be used as food.
44 Producing Carbohydrates Energy for Life3Producing CarbohydratesProducers that use photosynthesis are usually green because they contain a green pigment called chlorophyll (KLOR uh fihl).Chlorophyll and other pigments are used in photosynthesis to capture to capture light energy.In plant cells, these pigments are found in chloroplasts.
45 Producing Carbohydrates Energy for Life3Producing CarbohydratesThe captured light energy is used to drive chemical reactions during which the raw materials, carbon dioxide and water, are used to produce sugar and oxygen.For plants, the raw materials come from air and soil.
46 Producing Carbohydrates Energy for Life3Producing CarbohydratesSome of the captured light energy is stored in the chemical bonds that hold sugar molecules together.
47 Storing Carbohydrates Energy for Life3Storing CarbohydratesPlants make more sugar during photosynthesis than they need for survival.Excess sugar is changed and stored as starches or used to make other carbohydrates.Plants use carbohydrates as food for growth, maintenance, and reproduction.Consumers take in food by eating producers or other consumers.
48 Energy for Life3RespirationSome of the energy from the food you eat is used to make you move.Some of it becomes thermal energy, which is why you feel warm or hot when you exercise.Most cells also need oxygen to break down food.
49 Energy for Life3RespirationDuring respiration, chemical reactions occur that break down food molecules into simpler substances and release their stored energy.Just as in photosynthesis, enzymes are needed for the chemical reactions of respiration.
50 Breaking Down Carbohydrates Energy for Life3Breaking Down CarbohydratesThe type of food molecules most easily broken down by cells is carbohydrates.Respiration of carbohydrates begins in the cytoplasm of the cell.The carbohydrates are broken down into glucose molecules.Each glucose molecule is broken down further into two simpler molecules.As the glucose molecules are broken down, energy is released.
51 Breaking Down Carbohydrates Energy for Life3Breaking Down CarbohydratesThe two simpler molecules are broken down again. This breakdown occurs in the mitochondria of the cells of plants, animals, fungi, and many other organisms.This process uses oxygen, releases much more energy, and produces carbon dioxide and water as wastes.
52 Breaking Down Carbohydrates Energy for Life3Breaking Down CarbohydratesWhen you exhale you breathe out carbon dioxide and some of the water.Respiration occurs in the cells of all living things.
53 Energy for Life3FermentationWhen cells do not have enough oxygen for respiration, they use a process called fermentation to release some of the energy stored in glucose molecules.Like respiration, fermentation begins in the cytoplasm.
54 Energy for Life3FermentationAgain, as the glucose molecules are broken down, energy is released.But the simple molecules from the breakdown of glucose do not move into the mitochondria.Instead, more chemical reactions occur in the cytoplasm.
55 Fermentation 3 These reactions release some energy and produce wastes. Energy for Life3FermentationThese reactions release some energy and produce wastes.Depending on the type of cell, the wastes may be lactic acid, alcohol, and carbon dioxide.The presence of lactic acid is why your muscle cells might feel stiff and sore after you exercise.
56 Energy for Life3Related ProcessesDuring photosynthesis and respiration, what is produced in one is used in the other.Photosynthesis produces sugars and oxygen, and respiration uses these products,The carbon dioxide and water produces during respiration are used during photosynthesis
57 Section Check3Question 1_______ is the total of all chemical reactions in an organism.AnswerThe answer is metabolism. All of the activities of an organism involve chemical reactions in some way.
58 Question 2 3 Which does this equation represent? A. respiration Section Check3Question 2Which does this equation represent?A. respirationB. fermentationC. photosynthesisD. chemosynthesis
59 Section Check3AnswerThe answer is C. During photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide and water and combine it with light energy to make sugars, which they use for food.
60 Section Check3Question 3_______ is the type of food molecules most easily broken down by cells.AnswerThe answer is carbohydrates. As carbohydrates are broken down, energy is released.
61 Chapter 9 Review 1 of 2Animals, plants, fungi, and many other organisms undergo respiration.Plants use chlorophyll to produce glucose.Photosynthesis results in the release of oxygen.In respiration, glucose is broken down.Consumers: organisms that can’t make their own food.
62 Chapter 9 Review 2 of 2Enzymes: proteins that speed up chemical reactions.Photosynthesis: changing light energy into chemical energy.Producers: organisms that make their own food.The energy used in photosynthesis comes from the Sun.All living things are made up of organic compounds.