2 Moving Cellular Materials Cells have a _____ membrane that regulates what goes into or out of the cell.Passive transport - the movement of substances through a cell membrane _____ the use of energy.
3 Diffusion - when molecules move away from areas where there are more of them into areas where there are _____ of them; stops when molecules of one substance are spread evenly throughout another substance and _____ occurs.Osmosis - the diffusion of _____ through a cell membrane.
4 In facilitated diffusion, _____ move substances into and out of the cell. Active transport requires _____ to move substances through a cell membrane.Endocytosis - the process in which a substance is taken into a cell by surrounding it with the _____, forming a sphere called a vesicle.Exocytosis - the process in which the membrane of the vesicle fuses with the cell’s membrane and the vesicle’s contents are _____ the cell.
5 Photosynthesis - the process that plants and other organisms use to convert _____ into chemical energy or sugars to be used as food._____- organisms that make their own food; _____- organisms that can’t make their own food.Chlorophyll and other pigments are used to in photosynthesis to capture _____ which is used to produce sugar and _____.
6 Respiration - the process in which chemical reactions break down food molecules into simpler substances and ____Respiration of carbohydrates begins in the _____.Carbohydrates are broken down into _____.Each glucose molecule is broken down into two _____ molecules, releasing energy.
7 Respiration moves into the _____. The two simpler molecules are _____ again, releasing much more energy.This process uses _____ and produces CO2 and water as waste.
8 Fermentation - cells that do not have enough oxygen for respiration use this process to release some of the stored energy in _____ molecules.Entire process occurs in the _____.Produces _____, _____, and carbon dioxide as wastes.
9 Photosynthesis and _____ - almost the opposite of each other. Photosynthesis produces __________, which are used in respiration.Respiration produces __________, which are used in photosynthesis.