The ABCs of Pygmalion A.We cannot behave or act in a manner that is inconsistent with our expectations and beliefs (of others or ourselves). B.Our behaviors and actions toward others influence their expectations, behaviors, and performance either positively or negatively. C.Thus, our expectations will become a self-fulfilling prophecy, partly because we will act in a manner that is consistent with that “prophecy” and cause it to “be fulfilled.”
Pygmalion Film Discussion Question Areas Self-fulfilling prophecies (including examples) The Pygmalion effect and its origin Professor Henry Higgins' Pygmalion role with Eliza Doolittle Eileen Edwards’ Pygmalion role with Bob Harris Elements in Bob and Eileen's relationship that allowed the Pygmalion transformation Changes that happened to Bob The expectation cycle and how it works Rosenthal's Four Factors (including examples from the video)
Training Objectives Understand the basic premises upon which SFPs and expectation effects are based. Identify the Four Pygmalion Factors through which people communicate their expectations of others. Understand the Three Ways to Create the Galatea Effect by raising people’s self-confidence. Develop the skills to apply the Four Pygmalion Factors and the Three Ways to Create the Galatea Effect.
Training Objectives (cont.) Identify a wide range of situations where Pygmalion and related SFP principles can be used. Raise the expectations you have for employees. Believe more in your own ability as a manager to positively influence and lead others.
The Human Side of Enterprise Theory X Manager View Possible views of the nature of employees Theory Y Manager View Average person is by nature lazy—they work as little as possible. They lack ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led. They are inherently self-centered and indifferent to their company’s needs. They are resistant to change. They are not by nature passive or resistant—they become so, due to experiences in the company. They have the potential to develop, to be motivated, the capacity for responsibility, etc.. Management’s job is to help people recognize and develop these characteristics for themselves. They are not very bright. Management’s job is to arrange conditions in the company so people can achieve their own goals by working toward org. objectives.
Pygmalion Factor #1 – Climate The kind of social and emotional mood we create for others. “When we expect more favorable things of people, we create a more positive interpersonal climate for them.” -- Dr. Robert Rosenthal
Negative Pygmalion – Climate Verbally criticizing their competence or potential Negative non-verbal cues through voice, face and body posture or movements (Poor behaviors that communicate low expectations) Being distracted, in a hurry, or otherwise not giving an employee your full attention
Positive Pygmalion – Climate Being verbally supportive and encouraging Helping an employee set challenging goals (Good behaviors that communicate high expectations) Providing positive non-verbal cues through tone of voice, eye contact, facial expressions and body posture or movements
Pygmalion Factor #2 – Input (The amount of information we give others) “We teach more to those from whom we expect more.” -- Dr. Robert Rosenthal
Negative Pygmalion – Input Not giving an employee sufficient direction, guidance or vital information to complete an assignment Waiting too long to check on progress and provide any needed “course correction” Providing very limited information without reason - making an employee feel “out of the loop” (Poor behaviors that communicate low expectations)
Positive Pygmalion – Input Spending “extra” time with an employee Providing an employee with ideas to follow up on or additional sources of information to use (Good behaviors that communicate high expectations) Giving enough resources or ideas without usurping ownership or “taking over” the assignment
Pygmalion Factor #3 – Output The amount of input we encourage from others. “We give more opportunity to those for whom we have more favorable expectations to express their questions.” -- Dr. Robert Rosenthal
Negative Pygmalion – Output Cutting people off when they are speaking Not seeking their opinions or insights Limiting the number and scope of their work assignments (Poor behaviors that communicate low expectations)
Positive Pygmalion – Output Assigning new, varying, multiple or incrementally challenging assignments Providing opportunities (e.g., training, projects) to learn or practice skills Providing exposure to and visibility within other areas or departments (especially upward in the organization) (Good behaviors that communicate high expectations)
Pygmalion Factor #4 – Feedback (The information we give others in regards to their performance) “Managers give more positive reinforcement to high-expectation employees. They praise them more for good work and criticize them less for making mistakes. Consequently, their confidence grows.” -- Dr. Robert Rosenthal
Negative Pygmalion – Feedback Being distracted, in a hurry, or otherwise not giving an employee your full attention Criticizing the person – focusing on traits instead of specific behaviors negative Making negative generalizations – defining a person by using negative labels (Poor behaviors that communicate low expectations)
Positive Pygmalion – Feedback Providing helpful suggestions on how an employee might be able to improve their performance Regularly reinforcing desirable behaviors with praise, recognition or rewards that are sincere and specific Reinforcing your belief in their ability to do better and your desire to see them succeed (Good behaviors that communicate high expectations)
Creating the Galatea Effect 1. Give them tasks to perform 2. Involve them with successful models 3. Use verbal persuasion (Building employees’ self-confidence)