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Leadership Organizational Behaviour Social Behaviour.

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership Organizational Behaviour Social Behaviour."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership Organizational Behaviour Social Behaviour

2 Defining Leadership The use of influence to achieve goals

3 The trait perspective of leadership – The Great Man approach Traits = distinguishing personal characteristics that are generally not mutable (changeable) –Weak but consistent support for a variety of leadership traits Self-confidence Honesty/Integrity EnergyNeed for achievement IntelligenceDominance Emotional stabilityMotivation to lead

4 Ohio State studies of leadership Two key dimensions were related to leadership –Consideration – the extent to which the leader is approachable and shows personal concern for subordinates and –Initiating structure – the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs the group toward goal attainment

5 Situational approaches: Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Leader motivation –Relationship oriented - high LPC score –Task oriented - low LPC score

6 Situational approaches: Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Situational conditions –Leader-member relations – favourable when there is support, trust, and cooperation –Task structure – favourable when there is high task structure: clear goals, procedures, and objective measures of performance –Position power – favourable when supported by the organization hierarchy

7 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Task structure Position power Effective leader orientation Leader-member relations Favourableness

8 Situational approaches: Path-Goal Theory Leader behaviour types 1.Directive behaviour – schedules work, sets performance standards, gives direction 2.Supportive behaviour – friendly, approachable, expresses concern 3.Participative behaviour – uses consultative processes, shares work problems, considers suggestions 4.Achievement oriented – demanding and supportive, seeks continual improvement

9 Path-Goal Theory Subordinate characteristics –Locus of control –Self-confidence - subordinate perception of their abilities – skills and experience Situational characteristics –Task structure– clear and routine versus challenging and ambiguous –Team dynamics - work group norms and influence

10 Situational approaches: Participative Models Purpose: –To motivate – increases enrichment and autonomy –To create quality – adds more information into the problem solving –To increase acceptance of the decision – in issues of fairness or change

11 Participative Models Downsides –Time and energy – involves a slower process and less experienced participants –Lack or receptivity or knowledge – not everyone is interested or skilled enough –Organizational climate or leader attributes – the organization or leader may not be predisposed to use participatory methods

12 Situational Leadership Theory Leader behaviour types –Task behaviour – spells out responsibilities and tells people what to do (like initiating structure) –Relationship behaviour – listening, giving social emotional support (like consideration) Follower maturity/ task readiness –Job maturity – task relevant knowledge, experience, and skill –Psychological maturity – self-confidence, commitment, and motivation

13 Situational Leadership Theory Four leadership styles: 1.Telling – very directive, giving explicit direction (high task, low relationship behaviour) 2.Selling – leader provides direction, uses persuasion to reduce resistance, may seek input (high task, high relationship behaviour) 3.Participating (consulting) – focus on growth and improvement through guidance, communication, and opportunities for subordinate decision making (low task, high relationship behaviour) 4.Delegating (join) – little direction or support, subordinates assume responsibility and are believed to be fully capable (low task, low relationship behaviour)

14 Selling (Hi T; Hi R) Delegating (Lo T; Lo R) Telling (Hi T; Lo R) Participating (Lo T; Hi R) M4 -Able and willing M3 - Able but unwilling or insecure M2 – Unable but willing M1 –Unable and unwilling or insecure Task behaviors Relationship behaviors Contingency approach: Situational Leadership Theory Low follower maturity High follower maturity

15 Situational Approaches: Participative Leadership Three key considerations: 1.Quality requirement – can the decision turn out badly; are all options equal in quality 2.Commitment/Acceptance decision - will employees be committed enough to the decision to implement it properly 3.Time availability – how efficiently must the decision be made

16 leader participation contingency variables QR Quality Requirement–is the technical quality of this decision important LI Leader information – does the leader have sufficient information to create a high quality decision ST Problem Structure – is the problem well structured CR (AR) Commitment/Acceptance Requirement- is subordinate commitment to the decision important CP (AP) Commitment/Acceptance Probability – if you made the decision yourself, is it reasonably certain that subordinates would be committed to the decision information

17 leader participation contingency variables GC Goal Congruence – Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be attained by solving this problem CO Subordinate Conflict – Is conflict among subordinates likely in the preferred solution SI Subordinate Information – Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high quality decision

18 leader participation contingency variables Added considerations: TCTime Constraint – Is there a time constraint that limits your ability to involve subordinates MD Motivation Development – Is it important to maximize the opportunities for subordinate development

19 Participative Leadership Issues: –Not all subordinates are equally skilled or interested –Not all managers are equally skilled or interested –Not all organizational cultures support flexible decision styles

20 Transactional Leaders Power is derived through the ability to reward and punish Clear and define the pathway so that followers know what is expected Take into consideration followers needs

21 Transformational leaders Influence comes from follower acceptance of values and vision which guide all decisions and behaviours Transformational Leaders: –Intellectually stimulate followers –Give individualized consideration –Are charismatic

22 Neutralizers of leadership People orientedTask oriented leadership leadership - Knowledgeable, experienced subordinates x -Subordinates with high need for independence x x -”Professional” subordinates x x -Subordinates indifferent to organizational rewards x x -Subordinates doing routine or standardized work x -Task has built in feedback x -Task is intrinsically satisfying x -Organization is highly formalized (written rules) x -Work group is cohesive x x -Rewards cannot be affected by the supervisor x x -Large distance between supervisor and subordinate x x

23 Does leadership make a difference Leader irrelevance –Situational importance –The “romance of leadership” Attributing leadership Stereotyping leadership Need for situational control

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