Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION Organizational behavior is the study of human relation in organization. To understand individual and group behavior, interpersonal process,"— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION Organizational behavior is the study of human relation in organization. To understand individual and group behavior, interpersonal process, organizational dynamics With the goal of improving the performance of the organizations and the people in them
So learning about Organizational Behavior can help to: -Develop a better work related understanding about yourself and others -Have a knowledge platform that can expand your potential career success in dynamic and complex workplaces.
A: Organizational Strategy Organizations are collections of people working together to achieve a common purpose (Implication for your organization?) Let’s Discuss
A strategy guides organizations to operate in ways that out perform competitors. Sustainable high performance is achieved only when strategies are well implemented and It is in respect to implementation that understanding Organizational Behavior becomes especially important People in the organization make things happens People make the difference
So leaders and managers need to mobilize and activate human capital and talents to implement strategies. B. Organizational environment Organizations are dynamic open system Open systems transform human and material resource inputs into finished goods and services Stakeholders are people and groups with and interest in the performance of the organization.
Figure 1: Organization as open systems
C. Organizational Culture It is a shared set of beliefs and values within an organization. Figure 2: Insights on organizational cultures
D. Diversity and Multicultural Workforce diversity-individual differences Multiculturalism- refers to pluralism and respect for diversity in the workplace
Managers - are responsible for supporting the work efforts of other people Effective managers – is one who helps others achieve high levels of both performance and satisfaction. Task Performance – is the quantity and quality of work produces Job Satisfaction – is a positive feeling about one’s work and work setting.
Figure 3:The Management Process of Planning, Leading and Controlling
Technical skills is an ability to perform specialized task Human skills is the ability to work well with other people – Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to manage ourselves and one’s relationship effectively – EI is ability to understand and deals with emotions. – EI is now considered as an important leadership competency.
Is the ability to analyze and solve complex problems.
Human Relation Interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes toward one another. Psychological Contract Set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will contribute to an organization (referred to as contributions) and what the organization will in return provide the employee (referred to as inducements)
Job Satisfaction Degree of enjoyment that people derive from performing their jobs. Morale Overall attitude that employees have toward their workplace.
Motivation - The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways Classical theory Theory holding that workers are motivated solely by money Behavior Theory: The Hawthorn Studies Tendency for productivity to increase when workers believe they are receiving special attention from management
Theory X Theory of motivation holding that people are naturally irresponsible and not cooperative. Theory Y Theory of motivation holding that people are naturally responsible, growth oriented, self-motivated, and interested in being productive
Theory XTheory Y 1. People are lazy 1.People are energetic 2. People lack ambition and dislike responsibility 2. People are ambitious and seek responsibility 3. People are self-centered 3. People can be selfless 4. People resist change 4. People want to contribute to business growth and change 5. People are gullible and not very bright 5. People are intelligent
Hierarchy of human needs model Theory of motivation describing five levels of human needs and arguing that basic needs must be fulfilled before people work to satisfy higher-level needs. Two Factor Theory Theory of motivation holding that job satisfaction depends on two types of factors, hygiene and motivation
Expectancy theory Theory of motivation holding that people are motivated to work toward rewards that they want and that they believe they have a reasonable chance of obtaining. Equity Theory Theory of motivation holding that people evaluate their treatment by employers relative to the treatment of others.
1. Reinforcement Theory that behavior can be encouraged or discouraged by means of rewards or punishments 2. Management by Objectives Set of procedures involving both managers and subordinates in setting goals and evaluations progress
3.Participative Management and Empowerment Method of increasing job satisfaction by giving employees a voice in the management of their jobs and the company 4.Job Enrichment and job Redesign ◦ Job Enrichment Method of increasing job satisfaction by adding one or more motivating factors to job activities ◦ Job Redesign Method of Increasing job satisfaction by designing a more satisfactory fit between workers and their jobs Usually implemented in one of three ways; Combining tasks Forming natural work groups Establishing client relationships
5. Modified Work Schedule a)Work-Share Programs Method of increasing job satisfaction by allowing two or more people to share a single full-time job b)Flextime Programs Method of increasing job satisfaction by allowing workers to adjust work schedules on a daily or weekly basis c)Telecommuting Form of flextime that allows people to perform some or all of a job away from standard office setting
Leadership ◦ Process of motivating others to work to meet specific objectives Managerial Style ◦ Pattern of behavior that a manager exhibits in dealing with subordinates Autocratic Style ◦ Managerial style in which managers generally issue orders and expect them to be obeyed without question
Democratic Styles ◦ Managerial style in which managers generally ask for input from subordinates but retain final decision-making power Free-rein style ◦ Managerial style in which managers typically serve as advisers to subordinates who are allowed to make decisions.
The Contingency Approach to Managerial Style ◦ Approach to managerial style holding that the appropriate behavior in any situation in dependent (contingent) on the unique elements of that situation. Motivation and Leadership in the Twenty- First Century i.Changing Patterns of Motivation ii.Changing Patterns of Leadership