2Introduction- This slide is for your own information Just to remind you, Influencing is the third function of managerial functions (Planning, Organizing, Influencing, & Controlling).Influencing includes different topics:1. Leading2. Motivating3. Considering groups4. Communicating5. Encouraging creativity and innovation6. Building Corporate Culture
3Defining LeadershipLeadership: is the process of directing the behavior of others toward the accomplishment of some objectivesDirecting: causing individuals to act in a certain way or to follow a particular course (i.e. to follow organizational policies, procedures, and job descriptions).Leadership is all about getting things accomplished through people.LeaderFollowers
4Defining Leadership - Leader Versus Manager Leading is NOT the same as Managing(some managers are leaders, some leaders are managers, but they are different)Executives should combine the two roles and have both management skills (focusing on org processes) + leadership skills = to achieve organizational successThey should focus on both: Organizational Processes (management) and Concern for People (leadership)
5Defining Leadership - Leader Versus Manager ManagingLeading(part of the Influencing function)Broader in scopeFocuses on behavioral & non-behavioral issuesMaking sure the job is doneEmphasizes behavioral issuesFocuses on the people who do the job
6Defining Leadership - Leader Versus Manager Effective Managers
7Leadership TodayToday’s leaders face the following new situations that were not there in the past:Massive personnel cuts → ↓ level of the organization + ↓ labor expensesIntroduce work teams → better decision making & work flowReengineer work → ↑ efficient & effectiveInitiate programs → improve quality of the organizationOld leadership style: controlling people & work processesNew leadership style: involve employees in the org. & give them freedom to use their abilities as they think the best(The figure in the next slide is an example of how they are different)
10Leadership Styles – (1) Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership: is the leadership that inspires organizational success by profoundly affecting followers’ beliefs in what an organization should be, as well as their values (such as justice & integrity)It is also called Charismatic Leadership and Inspirational LeadershipIt creates the sense of duty in the organizationIt encourages new ways of handling problemsIt promotes learning within the org membersIt is having more attention nowadays because many organizations are going through the challenge of dramatic changes to be more competitive in a global business.
11Leadership Styles – (1) Transformational Leadership The Tasks of Transformational Leaders:They raise followers’ awareness of organizational issues and their consequences (understand high priority issues and what will happen if they were not resolved successfully)They create a vision of what the organization should be, build commitment to that vision throughout the organization, and facilitate organizational changes that support the vision (consistent with the organization strategy)
12Leadership Styles – (2) Coaching Coaching: is leadership that instructs followers on how to meet the special organizational challenges they face.The coaching leader identifies inappropriate behavior in followers and suggest how they might correct it.Coaching is important nowadays because the increasing use of teamsCoaching Behavior:Listens closely: to gather facts and feelings & emotionsGives emotional support: personal encouragement to motivate them to do their best to meet the high demands of successful organizationsShows by example what constitutes appropriate behavior: by demonstrating (showing) expertise, they gain trust & respect of followers.
14Leadership Styles – (3) Super-leadership Super-leadership: is leading by showing others how to lead themselves.Superleaders teach followers how to:Think on their ownAct constructivelyAct dependentlyEliminate negative thoughts & beliefs (about the company & coworkers) and replace it with positive & constructive beliefs.Build self-confidence by convincing them that they are competent, have potentials, & capable of meeting difficult challengesObjective: followers will need very little leadership/attention, work independently, and be productive (Why it is Important?)Because today’s organizations structure is flatter → fewer leader- manager
15Leadership Styles – (4) Servant Leadership Servant Leadership: leaders view their primary role as helping followers in their quests to satisfy personal needs, aspirations, and interests.They place high value on service to others over self-interestsThey see their main responsibility as the care of human resources of the organizations.They think that human resources are the most valuable resourceThey try to transform their followers into wiser and more autonomous individuals → more successful organizationServant leadership focuses on empowerment, sense of community, & sharing of authorityServant leadership has high potential for enhancing org. success.
16Leadership Styles – (4) Servant Leadership Characteristics of Servant leaders are:Good listeners: (how?)Persuasive: (how?)Aware of their surroundings: (how?)Empathetic: (how?)Stewards: (how?)Empathy: is the intellectual identification with the feelings, thoughts, or attitudes of others.Steward: an individual who is entrusted with managing the affairs of others
17Leadership Styles – (5) Entrepreneurial Leadership Entrepreneurial Leadership: the attitude that the leader is self- employedThey act as if they are playing a critical role in the organizationThey act as if they are taking risk of losing money or will receive the profitConsider every mistake as if it were a significant errorThese five styles of leadership are not mutually exclusive (they can be combined in different ways to generate a unique style) (see figure in the next slide)