2THE MEANINGS OF MOTIVATION Motivation is (1) an internal state that leads to effort toward objectives, and (2) an activity performed by one person to get another person to accomplish work.Motivation might be directed toward subordinates, coworkers, supervisors, or customers.
310 USEFUL ATTITUDES AND SKILLS FOR MOTIVATION Asking the person what he or she hopes to achieve in the situation.Figuring out if the person has the ability to do what I need done.Explaining exactly what you want to the person you are trying to motivate.Giving lots of feedback to worker.Specifying what needs to be done.
4ATTITUDES AND SKILLS FOR MOTIVATION, continued Treat the other person fairly.Avoid instilling fear in the person.Generously praise person who gets your work accomplished.Before giving a reward, find out what would appeal to the person.Recognize that having the right skill is needed for person to be motivated.
5(WIIFM)“What’s in it for me?” is the most fundamental principle of motivation.People want to know how they will benefit from performing a task.Performing a social good might lead to reward of feeling good about oneself.Must know what needs person is attempting to satisfy.
6RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEEDS AND BEHAVIOR Needs lead to behavior, or what people actually do. Two examples:Person with need for affiliation might be extraverted, and motivated to work with others.Person with need for achievement might be conscientious and motivated to accomplish useful work.
7NEEDS MOTIVATING 99% OF EMPLOYEES EsteemSafety and securityEquity (fair treatment)AchievementPowerAffiliationAutonomyRecognizing these needs enables you to apply the WIIFM principle.
8THE NATURE OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT Increases the probability that behavior will be repeated by rewarding people for making the desired response.Reward must be contingent upon doing something right.Negative reinforcement rewards people by taking away an uncomfortable consequence of their behavior.
9RULES FOR POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT State clearly what behavior will lead to a reward.Choose an appropriate reward.Supply ample feedback.Schedule rewards intermittently (surprise!).Make the rewards follow the observed behavior closely in time.
10REWARDS FOR POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT, continued Make the rewards fit the behavior (big deeds merit big rewards, and the reverse).Make the rewards visible (others should notice the reward, and the recipient should feel the difference).Change the rewards periodically.Reward the group or team also.
11STUDY OF WHAT WORKERS WANT FROM THEIR JOBS Competitive salary100 % health-care coverageCompany-matched 401(k) investmentsBonus programsFlexible work schedulesCompressed workweekGood boss relationshipBeing treated with respectSource: Harris Interactive/Kronos®
12USING RECOGNITION TO MOTIVATE OTHERS Recognition is a powerful form of positive reinforcement, yet low cost or no cost.Most workers crave recognition, yet feel they do not receive enough of it.70% of employees surveyed cited lack of appreciation as key factor for quitting.Recognition is not a substitute for good pay.
13MORE ABOUT RECOGNITION Identify meritorious behavior, then recognize behavior with reward.Time praise when it will do the most good, such as in a meeting.Recognition and praise are low cost, yet powerful motivators.Works best in culture of recognition.
14Expectancy TheoryHow much effort people expend depends on the reward they expect to receive in return.In other words, WIIFM
15Expectancy Theory Assumptions People are logical and rational. People want to maximize gain and minimize loss.People choose among alternatives by selecting the one they think they have the best chance of attaining.People choose the alternative with the biggest personal payoff.
16Expectancy Theory Components Effort to Performance Expectancy“Am I able to do the task?”Performance-to-Outcome Expectancy“What are my chances of receiving the reward?”0 – 1.0Valence (Exercise 10.3 on page 211)“What is the value or worth of the outcome?”-100 to +100
17CAPSULE OVERVIEW OF EXPECTANCY THEORY Person will be motivated whenEffort-to-performance expectancy is high. Person believes task is doable.Performance-to-outcome expectancy is high. Person believes performance will lead to certain outcomes.Valence is high. Outcome is valuable.
18HOW MOODS INFLUENCE EXPECTANCY THEORY Emotions influence impact of expectancies, instrumentalities, and valences.Positive mood increases perceived connection between (a) effort and performance (b) performance and desired outcomes, and (c) valences attached to those outcomes.
19DIAGNOSING MOTIVATION WITH EXPECTANCY THEORY Does person have the right skills and self-efficacy?How assured is person that performance will lead to the promised reward?How badly does person want the reward?Are there any zeroes in response to first three questions? If so motivation will be zero becauseMotivation = (EP) x (PO) x (sum of all valences for outcomes)
20GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING EXPECTANCY THEORY Train and encourage people.Make explicit link between rewards and performance.Make sure rewards are large enough.Understand individual differences in valences.Use the Pygmalion effect to increase (EP) expectancies. (High expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy.)