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THE WORLD WAR I ERA  CORE OBJECTIVE: Analyze the causes and effects of World War I.  Objective 4.1: Identify the main causes of World War I.  Objective.

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Presentation on theme: "THE WORLD WAR I ERA  CORE OBJECTIVE: Analyze the causes and effects of World War I.  Objective 4.1: Identify the main causes of World War I.  Objective."— Presentation transcript:

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2 THE WORLD WAR I ERA

3  CORE OBJECTIVE: Analyze the causes and effects of World War I.  Objective 4.1: Identify the main causes of World War I.  Objective 4.2: What steps led the U.S. entering the war in 1917?  Objective 4.3: Analyze the military and financial ways in which America prepared for war.  Objective 4.4: Describe the important provisions of the Treaty of Versailles that ended the war.  THEME: At the beginning of the 20 th century, a terrible war begins in Europe that will claim over 8 million lives. After staying neutral for a few years, the United States declared war to support its allies and felt the effects of warfare.

4 America: Pathways to the Present Section 1: The Road to War Section 2: The United States Declares War Section 3: Americans on the European Front Section 4: Americans on the Home Front Chapter 19: The World War I Era (1914–1920) Section 5: Global Peacemaker

5  George Washington; Federalist (1788)  John Adams; Federalist (1796)  Thomas Jefferson (1800)  James Madison (1808)  James Monroe (1816)  John Quincy Adams (1824)  Andrew Jackson; Democrat (1828)  Martin Van Buren; Democrat (1836)  William Henry Harrison; Whig (1840)  John Tyler; Whig (1841)  James K. Polk; Democrat (1844)  Zachary Taylor; Whig (1848)  Millard Fillmore; Whig (1850)  Franklin Pierce; Democrat (1852)  James Buchanan; Democrat (1856)  Abraham Lincoln; Republican (1860)  Andrew Johnson; Democrat (1865)  Ulysses S. Grant; Republican (1868)  Rutherford B. Hayes; Republican (1876)  James Garfield; Republican (1880) #21 - …  Chester A. Arthur; Republican (1881)  Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1884)  Benjamin Harrison; Republican (1888)  Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1892)  William McKinley; Republican (1896)  Theodore Roosevelt; Republican (1901)  William Howard Taft; Republican (1909) #28 - Woodrow Wilson; Democrat (1913)

6 As World War I began and then spread to much of Europe, the United States tried to remain neutral as long as possible.

7  The immediate event sparking the Great War, later to be known as World War I, was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo, Bosnia, on June 28,  However, the main causes of the war existed long before  At the time of his assassination, Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, had been visiting Bosnia, a new Austro-Hungarian province.  He was shot by Gavrilo Princip, a 19-year-old Serbian nationalist who believed that Austria-Hungary had no right to rule Bosnia.

8 Austrian- Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia. This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Saravejo

9 Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession

10  Imperialism  Competition for colonial lands in Africa and elsewhere led to conflict among the major European powers.  Militarism  By the early 1900s, powerful nations in Europe had adopted policies of militarism, or aggressively building up armed forces and giving the military more authority over government and foreign policy.  Nationalism  One type of nationalism inspired the great powers of Europe to act in their own interests. Another emerged as ethnic minorities within larger nations sought self-government.  Alliances  In a complicated system of alliances, different groups of European nations had pledged to come to one another’s aid in the event of attack.

11  Convinced that Serbia was behind the Archduke’s assassination, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28,  Russia, as Serbia’s protector, began mobilization, or the readying of troops for war.  France, Russia’s ally, and Germany, Austria-Hungary’s ally, also began mobilization.  Germany, located between France and Russia, wanted to conquer France quickly to avoid the need to fight on two fronts.  To get to France, German forces had to pass through neutral Belgium; the invasion of Belgium brought Britain into the conflict as well.  One week after the war started, all the great powers of Europe had been drawn into it.  Germany and Austria-Hungary formed the Central Powers  Russia, France, Serbia, and Great Britain were called the Allies.

12 When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, the complex alliance system in Europe drew much of the continent into the conflict.

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14  Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines (ex – machine guns) used in World War I.  Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy.  As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.  New methods of military transportation, including tanks, airplanes, and German zeppelins, or floating airships, influenced the manner in which the war was fought.

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21 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

22 Poison Gas Machine Gun

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24  With the Schlieffen Plan, Germany nearly takes Paris  However, by September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, a situation in which neither side is able to gain an advantage.  When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris (1914), both sides created trenches, is a type of ditch or depression in the ground.  Trenches were used to avoid enemy gunfire.  Technology overcame mobility.  Opposing trenches were separated by an empty “no man’s land.”  This describes the area of land between two enemy trench systems to which neither side wished to move openly or to seize due to fear of being attacked by the enemy in the process.  Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties.

25 Trench Warfare

26 “No Man’s Land”

27 1st World War in history Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII Total war

28  History.com video  war-i war-i

29  Because many Americans were European immigrants or the children of European immigrants, many felt personally involved in the escalating war.  Support for the Allies was partially caused by Germany’s rule by an autocrat, a ruler with unlimited power.  Anti-German propaganda, or information intended to sway public opinion, turned many Americans against the Central Powers.  To protect American investments overseas, President Wilson officially proclaimed the United States a neutral country on August 4,  At the beginning of World War I (1914) the United States would remain neutral

30 Which of the following was a cause of World War I? (A)Rising nationalism in European nations (B)Decrease in militarism among European powers (C)Pro-German propaganda in Britain (D)United States support of the Central Powers Why did the United States proclaim its neutrality in August 1914? (A)To please supporters of both sides (B)To protect its overseas investments (C)To allow time for preparedness (D)To aid Great Britain

31 Which of the following was a cause of World War I? (A)Rising nationalism in European nations (B)Decrease in militarism among European powers (C)Pro-German propaganda in Britain (D)United States support of the Central Powers Why did the United States proclaim its neutrality in August 1914? (A)To please supporters of both sides (B)To protect its overseas investments (C)To allow time for preparedness (D)To aid Great Britain


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