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Presentation on theme: "Causes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes

2 World War 1: Overview First total war in history (soldiers & civilians) In August 1914 it involved only 7 European countries but by November 1918 there were over 30 countries fighting Battles were fought in Europe, Asia, Africa, & on/under the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans Resulted in revolutions, changes of govts., loss of empires, the rise of great new powers, & millions of dead

3 World War I: Causes There were five underlying causes of WWI:
a). Militarism b). Alliances c). Nationalism d) Imperialism e). Assassination

4 Militarism The belief in the power of strong armies or navies to decide issues. It was thought that the only way to guarantee peace was to prepare for war. Based on the idea that if a nation is strong, then no enemy would dare to attack it. If war does break out, the militarized nation is able to defend itself.

5 Militarism Militarism led to an arms race before 1914 as each country tried to build a larger & more deadly war machine than its rivals. (page 80) The size of armies & navies would determine who was more powerful. (page 80) Germany contained Europe’s strongest armies while Great Britain was the world’s strongest naval power. Gr. Britain felt threatened when Germany began to construct a large navy. European nations were becoming increasingly suspicious & alarmed by the others’ military power.

6 Products of Militarism

7 Alliances Alliances are formed when countries band together against a common threat. In 1914 we had two alliances: 1.The Triple Alliance (“The Central Powers”) consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy 2. The Triple Entente (“The Allies”) consisting of Great Britain, France, and Russia

8 European Alliances 1914

9 Nationalism Nationalism is a feeling of deep loyalty to one’s people & homeland Extreme nationalism was causing problems in the early 20th century. Some people seemed willing to take any action to support their nation, regardless of the effect on others They were even ready to go to war to promote the interests of their homelands

10 Nationalism Nationalism was very strong in Serbia where people resented living under Austrian control. The Black Hand was a Serbian-Bosnian terrorist group that thought Bosnia should break away from Austria Franz Ferdinand was killed by a Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip, who belonged to the Black Hand, while visiting Sarajevo.


12 Imperialism Imperialism is the policy of establishing colonies away from the homeland & building an empire Colonies provided raw materials, markets for goods, & military strength for many European countries. Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, the United States all wanted to build a colonial empire. Imperialism led to frequent quarrels among the great powers of Europe in all parts of the globe. Arguments over colonies & trade constantly threatened peace.




16 Imperialism in Asia

17 Assassination! . ….of Franz Ferdinand (heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne) and his wife Sophia on June 28, 1914 Assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia by Gavrillo Princip, a 19 year old member of the Serbian organization known as the Black Hand Serbia had be demanding control of Bosnia Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia, Russia remained an ally to Serbia Within one week all members were at war (known as “the spark” that started WWI)

18 Ultimatum......July 1914 The Austro-Hungarian (A-H) govt blamed Serbia for the archduke’s death & attempted to crush Serb nationalism With the support of Germany, A-H sent the Serbian govt an ultimatum (A ultimatum is a demand by one govt that another govt accept its terms or face war) to Serbia a). put down all Serb nationalism against A-H b). Punish those involved in the assassination c). Allow A-H into Serbia to help destroy the Black Hand Serbia accepted all except the last request

19 Outbreak Austria declared war on Serbia when Serbia rejected the Austrian ultimatum. Russia, Serbia’s ally, along with France, mobilized their armies. Germany declared war on both Russia & France when both countries refused to demobilize. Germany planned to attack France through neutral Belgium Britain declared war on Germany when Belgium was invaded

20 Causes of WWI Review Name the two alliances that existed in Europe in 1914? What countries belonged to these alliances? What is nationalism? What role did it play in the outbreak of war? What was the Black Hand? What role did it play in the assassination of Franz Ferdinand? How did imperialism causes problems between nations in the years leading to outbreak of war in 1914. What is militarism?

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