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The Protestant Reformation

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1 The Protestant Reformation

2 Catholicism in the 1400s By the early 1500s the concerns crystallized into a reform movement that eventually came to be called the PROTESTANT REFORMATION Dissatisfaction with the Church: -- Financial corruption, abuse of power, and immorality. People’s respect for priests, monks, and popes weakened. --Heavy taxation also caused discontent Church financed Renaissance artists with elaborate projects, but it was the middle class and peasants who were taxed to pay for those projects.

3 Indulgences In the early 1500s Pope Leo X needed money for the construction of Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Were used…to help raise money , he approved the sale of indulgences. INDULGENCES: pardons issued by the pope that people could buy to reduce a soul’s time in purgatory. -- For 1000s of years, Catholics believed that after dying people went to purgatory, where their souls worked off the sins they had committed.

4 The sale of indulgences was one of the church’s most criticized practices.
During this time, Nationalism also came about. Nationalism: The devotion to a particular state of nation rather than to the church. People began to consider themselves citizens of a government separate from the church.

5 JAN HUS Reformers Two men stepped forward to challenge the church.
JOHN WYCLIFFE: born in England about 1330. -- He believed the church should give up its earthly possessions. --His views were proved unpopular with church officials, who removed him from his teaching positions. JAN HUS- born in southern Bohemia about 1370. Became a priest and preached against the immorality and worldliness of the Catholic Church. JAN HUS John Wycliffe

6 In 1412 Hus was excommunicated by Pope Gregory XII
Hus was later arrested, tried for heresy, and burned at the stake. These two men were some of the first to openly criticize the church. --This began a discussion that lead to reform.

7 MARTIN LUTHER 95 THESES Luther thought selling of indulgences was sinful. In his theses, he denied that indulgences had ANY power to remit sin. He also criticized the power of the pope and the wealth of the church. Not intended for the common people of his parish, but for church leaders.

8 He wrote the theses in academic Latin, which most people did not understand.
He nailed them to the church door, which was common practice of the time. Church doors served much as community bulletin boards do today.

9 LUTHER His theses, stimulated a discussion among university intellectuals. LUTHER’S MESSAGE -Luther continued to study and debate. -He contradicted basic Catholic beliefs when he insisted that God’s grace cannot be won by good works. - In 1519 he shocked many when he declared that the only head of the Christian Church is Jesus himself, not the pope.

10 He insisted the individual Christians should be their own interpreters of scripture and that Christian practices should come only from the Bible. He also translated the Bible into German. -- this enabled many more people to read the bible without the aid of the clergy.

11 REACTIONS 1520- Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther from the Church.
1521- Martin Luther was summoned to appear before the newly crowned Holy Roman emperor, Charles V, and the German assembly at the city of Worms. -- Luther refused to change his opinions.  The Holy Roman emperor handed down the EDICT OF WORMS – this decree declared Luther to be an outlaw and condemned his writings.

12 EDICT OF WORMS did not prevent Luther’s ideas from spreading.
Martin Luther himself did not intend to begin a new religion. By 1530 Lutheranism was formally recognized as a branch of Christianity.

13 MARTIN LUTHER Read the document about Martin Luther COLLINS I on him.
** you are a speechwriter for Martin Luther. You are giving a speech a few months after he had posted his theses. Write a speech on your intentions, what you think of the church, ideas on Christianity, etc. This would be a speech presented to the media after this huge change the took place for the Roman Catholic Church.

14 The Spread of Protestantism
Luther opened many doors for others to put forth their differing ideas on religious matters. ULRICH ZWINGLI— Entered priesthood at 22 and soon began preaching similar ideas to those of Martin Luther. Ideas were viewd as radical. Established a church in Switzerland that had the notion of theocracy at its base. THEOCRACY- a government in which church and state are joined and in which officials are considered to be divinely inspired.

15 COLLINS II What is the Protestant Reformation
How is it a reaction to the Early Church?

16 ZWINGLI Martin Luther opposed him and his supporters. He accused him of tampering with the word of God. When his disagreements with Catholic officials erupted in war, Zwingli was one of the casualties. He died in battle in 1531.

17 JOHN CALVIN Next to Luther , John Calvin, was the most important Protestant reformer. Born in 1509 and educated in France, Calvin was influenced by Erasmus and other Renaissance humanists. He also supported Martin Luther -- He preached the doctrine of PREDESTINATION- holds that God knows who will be saved, even before people are born., and therefore guides the lives of those destined for salvation.

18 Calvinists viewed people as sinful by nature, and strict laws were enacted that regulated people’s behavior. Church attendance was mandatory, and even matters such as the number of courses in each meal and the color of clothing were the subject of laws. Feasting, dancing, singing and wearing jewelry were forbidden. This gave his followers a sense of mission and discipline.

Henry VIII became king of England in 1509 at the age of 17. By 1525 his wife, Catherine of Aragon had borne only one child, a girl named Mary. He needed a male heir. He didn’t think Catherine would produce an heir, so he decided to have their marriage ANNULLED– or declared invalid based on church laws, so he could marry again.

20 Pope & Catherine opposed it.
“The King’s great matter.” While he argued about the annulment he fell in love with Anne Boleyn. He then took matters into his own hands. Summoned Parliament– became known as the Reformation of Parliament.

21 This gathering led to a declaration that England no longer considered itself under the authority of the pope. Henry himself became the head of the Church of England. Changed the rituals of the church very little, but closed Catholic monasteries and convents and distributed much of the land to nobles. This helped build more public support for the split of the church. 1533 Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII were secretly married. Anne gave birth to a girl the next year.

22 ACT OF SUPREMACY- required subjects to take an oath declaring Henry VIII to be “Supreme Head of the Church of England.” The break with Rome was complete. HENRY’S HEIRS -- He ended up having 6 wives. His 3rd wife, Jane Seymour gave England its male heir, Edward VI. None of his following marriages produced a male. Edward took the throne at age 9 and died before he was 16.

23 Henry’s daughter Mary became Queen of England.
She returned England to the authority of the pope. 100s of people were burned at the stake because of their Protestant beliefs, earning her the title BLOODY MARY. When she died, her 25 year old half sister, daughter of Anne Boleyn became queen.

24 Elizabeth I -- Protestant at heart. -- She drafted a new Supremacy Act in 1559, splitting England once again from Rome. A strong queen, Elizabeth survived these struggles and firmly establish the Church of England.

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