Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation"— Presentation transcript:
1The Protestant Reformation Main IdeaCriticism of the Roman Catholic Church led to a religious movement called the Protestant Reformation and brought changes in religion and politics across Europe.Essential QuestionsWhat was the state of Catholicism in the 1400s?How did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church?How did Protestantism spread to other areas?What were the effects of the Reformation in England?
2Catholicism in the 1400sRoman Catholic Church—influential, extravagant, and worldlySome people felt church straying from spiritual rootsConcerns turned into the Protestant ReformationFinancial corruption, abuse of power, immoralityPeople’s respect for priests, monks, popes weakenedDissatisfactionPope approved sale of indulgencesIndulgences, pardons reduced a soul’s time in purgatoryIndulgencesCatholics believed dead went to purgatory, worked off sins committedSale of indulgences widely criticizedPeople wanted a govt. separate from the churchWorking Off Sins
3What conditions led to the Protestant Reformation? SummarizeWhat conditions led to the Protestant Reformation?Answer(s): Church's financial corruption; immorality; abuse of power
4The Ninety-Five Theses Stimulated Discussion Martin LutherMartin Luther’s public criticism of the church in 1517 marks the symbolical beginning of the Protestant Reformation.Martin Luther believed selling indulgences sinfulIn theses, said indulgences had no power to remit sinCriticized power of pope, wealth of churchTheses written in Latin, intended for church leaders, not common peopleThe Ninety-Five ThesesNailing theses to church door common practice; doors used like community bulletin boardsTheses stimulated discussion among university intellectualsPublished, distributed across Europe, widely read by intellectuals, clergy, laypeopleDesire for reform grewStimulated Discussion
5Luther’s Message Empowered the People Following publication of theses, Luther continued to study, debateContradicted basic Catholic beliefs, insisted God’s grace cannot be won by good works; faith alone needed1519, declared only head of Christian Church was Jesus, not popeEmpowered the PeopleInsisted that individual Christians should be own interpreters of scripture, Christian practices should come only from BibleTo aid this process, Luther translated Bible into GermanTranslation allowed more people to read Bible without aid of clergy
6Reactions to Luther Church’s Response Will you change? Edict of Worms 1520, Pope expelled Luther from the Church1521, Luther summoned to appear before Holy Roman emperor Charles VWill you change?Luther appeared before emperor & assembly, at city of WormsRefused to change opinionsEdict of WormsEmperor handed down Edict of WormsDeclared Luther to be outlaw, condemned his writingsLuther’s ideas spreadProtestantTried to suppress Lutherans in GermanyGerman princes issued protestatio, protest, against thisTerm Protestant came from this
7Identify Supporting Details Describe the ideas of Martin Luther and how they contradicted the church’s teachings of his day.Answer(s): God's grace cannot be won by good works but by faith; leader of church is Jesus, not pope; people can interpret scripture; practices come from Bible; challenged Catholic practices and the authority of the pope
8The Spread of Protestantism Luther’s stand against the church opened the door for othersDiffering ideas on religious matters put forth.New religious movements began in Switzerland and other places in Europe.Born in Switzerland, preached ideas similar to Martin Luther’sMany ideas viewed as radicalHis church based on theocracy, government in which church, state joined; officials divinely inspiredUlrich ZwingliLuther accused Zwingli of tampering with word of GodWithout Lutherans’ support, Swiss Protestants vulnerable to attack by CatholicsOpposed by LutherWhen the disagreement between Swiss Protestants and Catholics erupted into war, Zwingli died in battle.
9John Calvin Background Predestination People Sinful by Nature John Calvin most important Protestant reformer next to Martin LutherSupported reforms of Luther in GermanyPredestinationPreached doctrine of predestinationGod knows who will be saved, guides lives of those destined for salvationNothing humans can do, good or bad, will change predestined endPeople Sinful by NatureGeneva became theocracy under Calvin; strict laws regulated behaviorStrictness at heart of Calvinism’s appeal, gave sense of mission, disciplineCalvinists making world fit for “elect” who had been chosen for salvation
10Other Reformers John Knox Anabaptists Spokesman for the Reformation in ScotlandKnox’s Reformed Church replaced Roman Catholic ChurchLaid groundwork for later Presbyterian denominationAnabaptistsDifferent beliefs about baptism; insisted only adults should be baptized (not infants)Crime punishable by death at that timeAnabaptist Church evolved into Baptists, the Mennonites, and the Amish Mennonites
11Make GeneralizationsHow did the ideas of reformers who came after Luther differ from those of Luther?Answer(s): some were more radical; included ideas of theocracy, predestination
12Protestantism Spreads to England Protestant Reformation began with criticisms of the Catholic ChurchReformation began with the king in England1509, Henry VIII devout CatholicWrote angry protests against Luther’s ideasBy 1525, Henry had only one child, MaryA King’s ProtestHenry wanted male heir, thought female monarch would weaken EnglandDecided to have marriage to Catherine annulledPope would not agree to annulmentAnnulmentCatherine, nephew Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, also opposed annulmentHenry fell in love with Ann BoleynOpposition
13The Reformation Parliament Henry Takes OverParliament declared that England no longer under authority of popeHenry became head of Church of EnglandChurch of EnglandHenry changed rituals of church very littleDistributed much of land to nobles, built more support for split from ChurchAct of Supremacy passed; Henry VIII “Supreme Head of Church of England”- Anne Boleyn and Henry secretly married; marriage to Catherine annulled- Later that year Anne gave birth to daughter, Elizabeth
14Henry’s Heirs Bloody Mary Elizabeth’s Reign Third wife, Jane Seymour gave England male heir, Edward VI1547, Edward VI took throne, age 9Protestantism gained more ground under guidance of his guardiansEdward died young; sister, Mary became queen of EnglandMary returned England to authority of popeHundreds burned at state for Protestant beliefs, earning queen title “Bloody Mary”Half-sister Elizabeth became queenBloody MaryElizabeth I, Protestant at heart1559, drafted new Supremacy Act, splitting England again from RomeElizabeth secured Church of EnglandElizabeth’s Reign