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The Protestant Reformation

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Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Protestant Reformation
Main Idea Criticism of the Roman Catholic Church led to a religious movement called the Protestant Reformation and brought changes in religion and politics across Europe. Essential Questions What was the state of Catholicism in the 1400s? How did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church? How did Protestantism spread to other areas? What were the effects of the Reformation in England?

2 Catholicism in the 1400s Roman Catholic Church—influential, extravagant, and worldly Some people felt church straying from spiritual roots Concerns turned into the Protestant Reformation Financial corruption, abuse of power, immorality People’s respect for priests, monks, popes weakened Dissatisfaction Pope approved sale of indulgences Indulgences, pardons reduced a soul’s time in purgatory Indulgences Catholics believed dead went to purgatory, worked off sins committed Sale of indulgences widely criticized People wanted a govt. separate from the church Working Off Sins

3 What conditions led to the Protestant Reformation?
Summarize What conditions led to the Protestant Reformation? Answer(s): Church's financial corruption; immorality; abuse of power

4 The Ninety-Five Theses Stimulated Discussion
Martin Luther Martin Luther’s public criticism of the church in 1517 marks the symbolical beginning of the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther believed selling indulgences sinful In theses, said indulgences had no power to remit sin Criticized power of pope, wealth of church Theses written in Latin, intended for church leaders, not common people The Ninety-Five Theses Nailing theses to church door common practice; doors used like community bulletin boards Theses stimulated discussion among university intellectuals Published, distributed across Europe, widely read by intellectuals, clergy, laypeople Desire for reform grew Stimulated Discussion

5 Luther’s Message Empowered the People
Following publication of theses, Luther continued to study, debate Contradicted basic Catholic beliefs, insisted God’s grace cannot be won by good works; faith alone needed 1519, declared only head of Christian Church was Jesus, not pope Empowered the People Insisted that individual Christians should be own interpreters of scripture, Christian practices should come only from Bible To aid this process, Luther translated Bible into German Translation allowed more people to read Bible without aid of clergy

6 Reactions to Luther Church’s Response Will you change? Edict of Worms
1520, Pope expelled Luther from the Church 1521, Luther summoned to appear before Holy Roman emperor Charles V Will you change? Luther appeared before emperor & assembly, at city of Worms Refused to change opinions Edict of Worms Emperor handed down Edict of Worms Declared Luther to be outlaw, condemned his writings Luther’s ideas spread Protestant Tried to suppress Lutherans in Germany German princes issued protestatio, protest, against this Term Protestant came from this

7 Identify Supporting Details
Describe the ideas of Martin Luther and how they contradicted the church’s teachings of his day. Answer(s): God's grace cannot be won by good works but by faith; leader of church is Jesus, not pope; people can interpret scripture; practices come from Bible; challenged Catholic practices and the authority of the pope

8 The Spread of Protestantism
Luther’s stand against the church opened the door for others Differing ideas on religious matters put forth. New religious movements began in Switzerland and other places in Europe. Born in Switzerland, preached ideas similar to Martin Luther’s Many ideas viewed as radical His church based on theocracy, government in which church, state joined; officials divinely inspired Ulrich Zwingli Luther accused Zwingli of tampering with word of God Without Lutherans’ support, Swiss Protestants vulnerable to attack by Catholics Opposed by Luther When the disagreement between Swiss Protestants and Catholics erupted into war, Zwingli died in battle.

9 John Calvin Background Predestination People Sinful by Nature
John Calvin most important Protestant reformer next to Martin Luther Supported reforms of Luther in Germany Predestination Preached doctrine of predestination God knows who will be saved, guides lives of those destined for salvation Nothing humans can do, good or bad, will change predestined end People Sinful by Nature Geneva became theocracy under Calvin; strict laws regulated behavior Strictness at heart of Calvinism’s appeal, gave sense of mission, discipline Calvinists making world fit for “elect” who had been chosen for salvation

10 Other Reformers John Knox Anabaptists
Spokesman for the Reformation in Scotland Knox’s Reformed Church replaced Roman Catholic Church Laid groundwork for later Presbyterian denomination Anabaptists Different beliefs about baptism; insisted only adults should be baptized (not infants) Crime punishable by death at that time Anabaptist Church evolved into Baptists, the Mennonites, and the Amish Mennonites

11 Make Generalizations How did the ideas of reformers who came after Luther differ from those of Luther? Answer(s): some were more radical; included ideas of theocracy, predestination

12 Protestantism Spreads to England
Protestant Reformation began with criticisms of the Catholic Church Reformation began with the king in England 1509, Henry VIII devout Catholic Wrote angry protests against Luther’s ideas By 1525, Henry had only one child, Mary A King’s Protest Henry wanted male heir, thought female monarch would weaken England Decided to have marriage to Catherine annulled Pope would not agree to annulment Annulment Catherine, nephew Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, also opposed annulment Henry fell in love with Ann Boleyn Opposition

13 The Reformation Parliament
Henry Takes Over Parliament declared that England no longer under authority of pope Henry became head of Church of England Church of England Henry changed rituals of church very little Distributed much of land to nobles, built more support for split from Church Act of Supremacy passed; Henry VIII “Supreme Head of Church of England” - Anne Boleyn and Henry secretly married; marriage to Catherine annulled - Later that year Anne gave birth to daughter, Elizabeth

14 Henry’s Heirs Bloody Mary Elizabeth’s Reign
Third wife, Jane Seymour gave England male heir, Edward VI 1547, Edward VI took throne, age 9 Protestantism gained more ground under guidance of his guardians Edward died young; sister, Mary became queen of England Mary returned England to authority of pope Hundreds burned at state for Protestant beliefs, earning queen title “Bloody Mary” Half-sister Elizabeth became queen Bloody Mary Elizabeth I, Protestant at heart 1559, drafted new Supremacy Act, splitting England again from Rome Elizabeth secured Church of England Elizabeth’s Reign


16 What caused the Reformation to spread to England?
Summarize What caused the Reformation to spread to England? Answer(s): the desire of Henry VIII to annul his marriage

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