Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation. Key Questions What was the state of Catholicism in the 1400’s? How did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church? How did."— Presentation transcript:
The Protestant Reformation
Key Questions What was the state of Catholicism in the 1400’s? How did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church? How did Protestantism spread? What were the effects of The Reformation in England?
Key Terms and People Indulgences Purgatory Martin Luther Theocracy John Calvin Predestination Henry VIII Annulled Elizabeth I
Causes of the Protestant Reformation Cause ______ Cause ______ Cause ______ Protestant Reformation
Main Idea Criticism of the Roman Catholic Church led to a religious movement called the Protestant Reformation and brought changes in religion and politics across Europe.
Catholicism in the 1400s The Roman Catholic Church was wealthy and powerful. As the influence and extravagance of the church grew, some people thought it had lost sight of spiritual goals. By the 1500s, these concerns crystallized into a reform movement.
Dissatisfaction with the Church Financial corruption Abuses of power Immorality Heavy taxation
Example The Church financed Renaissance artists in extremely elaborate projects, but it taxed the middle class and peasants in an attempt to fund such projects.
Indulgences Pope Leo X Construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome He approved the sale of indulgences
Saint Peter’s Tomb
Indulgences Pardons issued by the pope that people could buy in exchange for reducing a soul’s time in purgatory. Purgatory = a place for souls who have to work off their sins before being admitted to heaven
Nationalism is Growing Devotion to a particular state of nation First loyalty is to the nation, not the church People saw themselves as citizens of a nation rather than members of a church.
Early Reformers Jean Wycliffe – church should give up it’s worldly possessions Jan Hus – priest – preached against the immorality and worldliness of the church
Jan Hus Excommunicated Arrested Tried for heresy Burned at the stake
Martin Luther 1517 – Martin Luther made his complaints public This is the official beginning of the Protestant Reformation
Ninety Five Theses Written in academic Latin Intended for church leaders Commonly the church door was like a bulletin board Factor in the printing press He condemned the sale of indulgences and criticized the power and wealth of the church and her papacy.
Faith alone is needed Head of the church is Jesus Translated the Bible into German
Edict of Worms The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V and the German Diet summoned Luther to a trial. Luther was steadfast in his beliefs Edict declared Luther an outlaw His writings were condemned
Lutheranism 1530 – becomes a formally recognized branch of Christianity Charles V moves to suppress Lutherans in German assembly Protestatio – issued by the German assembly
Other Reformers Zwingli – priest from Switzerland Calvin – preacher inspired by Luther
Ulrich Zwingli Zwingli was viewed as a radical. He wanted a theocracy A government in which church and state are joined and in which officials are considered to be divinely inspired.
John Calvin Influenced by Erasmus Preached the doctrine of predestination God knows who will be saved even before people are born. Humans have no control over their final fate. Calvinists have strict laws Amusements such as feasting, dancing, singing, and wearing jewelry are forbidden
Romans 9: What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? Certainly not! 15 For He says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whomever I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whomever I will have compassion.” [a] 16 So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who shows mercy.a
Predestination vs Free Will Do these ideas work in tandem with each other, or are they inherently opposite? (omniscience)
King Henry VIII Becomes king of England at age 17 He thought Luther’s ideas were “venomous.” Henry VIII = “Defender of the Faith” Wife = Catherine of Aragon Daughter = Mary Problem: Henry wants a male heir to the throne
Henry, Henry, Henry… Had so many wives, that had to die. To the tune of Money, Money, Money, by ABBA
Annullment Henry declared the marriage to be invalid, based upon church laws, so that he could be married to someone else who would bear a child. The Pope would not agree to the annullment.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V The nephew of Catharine of Aragon Catharine wanted to stay married.
Anne Boleyn Henry VIII falls in love with her while he is arguing with the pope over the annullment.
Reformation Parliament Henry summons parliament and declared that England is no longer under the authority of the pope. Henry names himself the head of the Church of England.
Back to Henry VIII He closed Catholic monasteries and convents and redistributed their land to nobles. Do you think this would build public support for Henry VIII?
Henry and Anne 1533 – secretly married Parliament declares Henry’s marriage to Catherine null and void. Anne gives birth to a baby girl. Guess who?
Act of Supremacy Subjects had to declare that Henry VIII was the, “Supreme Head of the Church of England.”
Henry’s Heirs He ended up with six wives. His third wife, Jane Seymour finally produced a male heir in Edward VI None of Henry’s later three marriages produced any children. Six wives of Henry VIII
Edward VI He takes the throne at age 9. He dies at age 15. Henry’s daughter, Mary becomes the Queen of England anyway.
Mary She returns England to the authority of the pope. Hundreds were burned at the stake for their Protestant beliefs. Bloody Mary Cue Bloody Mary Tudor
Mary Dies Protestants were not exactly full of sorrow. Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII, becomes Queen Elizabeth I of England. Elizabeth was a strong queen who firmly established the Church of England.
Who would you choose? Jennifer Lopez or Mary Queen of Scots
Elizabeth I Draft a new Act of Supremacy, splitting England once again from Rome. She was a Protestant at heart. Elizabeth persecuted Catholics because they tried to overthrow her. Catholics wished to appoint Mary, Queen of Scots (see handout)