2Key Questions What was the state of Catholicism in the 1400’s? How did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church?How did Protestantism spread?What were the effects of The Reformation in England?
3Key Terms and People Indulgences Purgatory Martin Luther Theocracy John CalvinPredestinationHenry VIIIAnnulledElizabeth I
4Causes of the Protestant Reformation ______ProtestantReformation
5Main IdeaCriticism of the Roman Catholic Church led to a religious movement called the Protestant Reformation and brought changes in religion and politics across Europe.
6Catholicism in the 1400sThe Roman Catholic Church was wealthy and powerful.As the influence and extravagance of the church grew, some people thought it had lost sight of spiritual goals.By the 1500s, these concerns crystallized into a reform movement.
7Dissatisfaction with the Church Financial corruptionAbuses of powerImmoralityHeavy taxation
8ExampleThe Church financed Renaissance artists in extremely elaborate projects, but it taxed the middle class and peasants in an attempt to fund such projects.
9Indulgences Pope Leo X Construction of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome He approved the sale of indulgences
12IndulgencesPardons issued by the pope that people could buy in exchange for reducing a soul’s time in purgatory.Purgatory = a place for souls who have to work off their sins before being admitted to heaven
13Nationalism is Growing Devotion to a particular state of nationFirst loyalty is to the nation, not the churchPeople saw themselves as citizens of a nation rather than members of a church.
14Early ReformersJean Wycliffe – church should give up it’s worldly possessionsJan Hus – priest – preached against the immorality and worldliness of the church
15Jan HusExcommunicatedArrestedTried for heresyBurned at the stake
17Martin Luther 1517 – Martin Luther made his complaints public This is the official beginning of the Protestant Reformation
18Ninety Five Theses Written in academic Latin Intended for church leadersCommonly the church door was like a bulletin boardFactor in the printing pressHe condemned the sale of indulgences and criticized the power and wealth of the church and her papacy.
19Faith alone is neededHead of the church is JesusTranslated the Bible into German
20Edict of WormsThe Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V and the German Diet summoned Luther to a trial.Luther was steadfast in his beliefsEdict declared Luther an outlawHis writings were condemned
22Lutheranism1530 – becomes a formally recognized branch of ChristianityCharles V moves to suppress Lutherans in German assemblyProtestatio – issued by the German assembly
23Other Reformers Zwingli – priest from Switzerland Calvin – preacher inspired by Luther
24Ulrich Zwingli Zwingli was viewed as a radical. He wanted a theocracy A government in which church and state are joined and in which officials are considered to be divinely inspired.
25John Calvin Influenced by Erasmus Preached the doctrine of predestinationGod knows who will be saved even before people are born.Humans have no control over their final fate.Calvinists have strict lawsAmusements such as feasting, dancing, singing, and wearing jewelry are forbidden
26Romans 9: 14-1614 What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? Certainly not! 15 For He says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whomever I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whomever I will have compassion.”[a] 16 So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who shows mercy.
27Predestination vs Free Will Do these ideas work in tandem with each other, or are they inherently opposite?(omniscience)
29King Henry VIII Becomes king of England at age 17 He thought Luther’s ideas were “venomous.”Henry VIII = “Defender of the Faith”Wife = Catherine of AragonDaughter = MaryProblem: Henry wants a male heir to the throne
30Henry, Henry, Henry… Had so many wives, that had to die. To the tune of Money, Money, Money, by ABBA
31AnnullmentHenry declared the marriage to be invalid, based upon church laws, so that he could be married to someone else who would bear a child.The Pope would not agree to the annullment.
32Holy Roman Emperor Charles V The nephew of Catharine of AragonCatharine wanted to stay married.
33Anne BoleynHenry VIII falls in love with her while he is arguing with the pope over the annullment.
34Reformation Parliament Henry summons parliament and declared that England is no longer under the authority of the pope.Henry names himself the head of the Church of England.
35Back to Henry VIIIHe closed Catholic monasteries and convents and redistributed their land to nobles.Do you think this would build public support for Henry VIII?
36Henry and Anne 1533 – secretly married Parliament declares Henry’s marriage to Catherine null and void.Anne gives birth to a baby girl. Guess who?
38Act of SupremacySubjects had to declare that Henry VIII was the, “Supreme Head of the Church of England.”
39Henry’s Heirs He ended up with six wives. His third wife, Jane Seymour finally produced a male heir in Edward VINone of Henry’s later three marriages produced any children.Six wives of Henry VIII
40Edward VI He takes the throne at age 9. He dies at age 15. Henry’s daughter, Mary becomes the Queen of England anyway.
41Mary She returns England to the authority of the pope. Hundreds were burned at the stake for their Protestant beliefs.Bloody MaryCue Bloody Mary Tudor
42Mary Dies Protestants were not exactly full of sorrow. Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII, becomes Queen Elizabeth I of England.Elizabeth was a strong queen who firmly established the Church of England.
43Who would you choose? Jennifer Lopez or Mary Queen of Scots
44Elizabeth IDraft a new Act of Supremacy, splitting England once again from Rome.She was a Protestant at heart.Elizabeth persecuted Catholics because they tried to overthrow her.Catholics wished to appoint Mary, Queen of Scots (see handout)