Wanted to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon because she had failed to produce a male heir
Had fallen in love with Anne Boleyn (a lady-in-waiting to the queen) Anne refused to be just a mistress Henry needed a legitimate son for a male heir
Pope might under normal circumstances annul the marriage, but... Sack of Rome in 1527 had made the Pope dependent on Charles the V (emperor of HRE). Charles the V was the nephew of Catherine
Henry advised to cut ties with Rome Parliament cut off all appeals from English church courts to Rome Ended Papal Authority in England Jan. 1533, king’s marriage was announced “null and absolutely void” and his marriage to Anne was validated 3 months later she had a child—a girl, named Elizabeth.
Act of Supremacy 1534—declared that the king was “taken, accepted, and reputed the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England.” (Anglican Church) This meant that the English Monarch now controlled all matters of doctrine, clerical appointments, and discipline.
Treason Act Made it punishable by death to deny that the king was the supreme head of the church. Would be challenged by Thomas More—who would be beheaded on July 6, 1535.
King keeps trying... Anne would be beheaded in 1536 on accounts of adultery #3, Jane Seymour produced the long awaited male heir, but died 12 days later.
#4, Anne of Cleves, was a German princess, and arranged for political purposes. –The painting of her turned out to be a bit flattering –Disappointed with her, he quickly divorced her
#5, Catherine Howard; prettier than #4, but preferred other men than Henry— she was beheaded #6, Catherine Parr; She would outlive him.
Catherine of Aragon Catherine of Aragon m. 1509 - 1533 Divorced Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn m. 1533 - 1536 Executed Jane Seymour Jane Seymour m. 1536 - 1537 Died Anne of Cleves Anne of Cleves m. 1540 Jan. - July Divorced Kathryn Howard Kathryn Howard m. 1540 - 1542 Executed Katherine Parr m. 1543 - 1547 WidowedKatherine Parr
Henry would be briefly succeeded by his sickly son Edward VI (1547-1553), the son of Jane Seymour.
Evolution of the Church Thomas Cromwell worked out details for the new church. –Monasteries were taken over and possessions were confiscated by the King. –Many were sold to nobles, gentry, and some merchants. (added to his supporters) –Moved towards more Protestant Doctrines (clergy’s right to marry, elimination of imagery, and new guide book, “Book of Common Prayer”
ARCHBISHOP THOMAS CRANMER BORN: 1489 EXECUTED: 21 MARCH 1556 Archbishop of Canterbury from 1533 to 1553. Granted the annulment of Henry VIII andHenry VIII Catherine of AragonCatherine of Aragon's marriage. Burned at the stake in Mary I's reign.Mary I
Cromwell was the chief minister to Henry VIII from 1532 to 1540. He supported English reformers such as Robert Barnes and Hugh Latimer, but he did not institute doctrinal changes in the Church of England. However, he did promote the use of the English Bible. He was executed on July 28, 1540 for treason and heresy
CHARLES V, KING OF SPAIN AND HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR BORN: 1500 DIED: 1558 Charles V by Titian Prado, Madrid Nephew of Catherine of Aragon and cousin of Mary I.Catherine of AragonMary I
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