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Reformation in England

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Presentation on theme: "Reformation in England"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reformation in England
1509: Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon, daughter of Spanish monarchs 1527: Catherine hadn’t produced a male heir to the throne, but a daughter, Mary. Henry was concerned about the political consequences of leaving only a female heir.

2 Dispensation from Pope Julius II
Henry even came to believe that his union with Catherine, had been cursed by god, because Catherine had first been the wife of his brother, Arthur. Henry’s father, Henry VII, had betrothed Catherine to Henry after Arthur’s untimely death in order to keep the English alliance with Spain intact. Because marriage to the wife of one’s brother was prohibited by both canon and biblical law the marriage had required a special dispensation from Pope Julius II. Catherine had many miscarriages and stillbirths,

3 Anne Boleyn By 1527, Henry fell for of Anne Boleyn. He determined to put Catherine aside and take Anne as his wife. This he could not do in Catholic England, however, without papal annulment of the marriage to Catherine.

4 The Reformation Parliament
When the king’s advisors could not obtain a papal annulment, they conceived of a plan to declare the king supreme in English spiritual affairs. Henry VIII was also recognized as Head of the Church in England.

5 Submission of the Clergy
In the same year, Parliament passed the Submission of the Clergy, which effectively placed canon law under royal control and thereby the clergy under royal jurisdiction.

6 Ended Payments to Rome/Church Appointments
In Parliament ended all payments by the English clergy to Rome and gave Henry sole jurisdiction over high ecclesiastical appointments.

7 Acts of Succession & Supremacy
When Thomas More and John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, refused to recognize the Act of Succession and the Act of Supremacy, Henry had them executed, making clear his determination to have his way regardless of the cost.

8 The Six Wives of Henry VIII
Marriage to CATHERINE OF ARAGON was annulled in 1533. In 1536, ANNE BOLEYN was executed for alleged treason and other charges and her daughter Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. JANE SEYMOUR died in 1537 shortly after giving birth to the future Edward VI. Henry wed ANNE OF CLEVES without seeing her first to create by the marriage an alliance with the Protestant princes. He thought she was ugly so the marriage was annulled by Parliament. CATHERINE HOWARD was beheaded for in 1542. Henry’s last wife, CATHERINE PARR, a patron of humanists and reformers, survived him.

9 Religious Conservatism
Despite the break with Rome, Henry remained decidedly conservative in his religious beliefs. He made only mild concessions to Protestant tenets, otherwise maintaining Catholic doctrine in a country filled with Protestant sentiments. Despite his many wives, Henry forbade the English clergy to marry.

10 King Henry VIII’s Children
When Henry died, many changes were made to his church. His son Edward became king until he died in his teens. The Duke of Somerset who watched over Edward, took away many Catholic traditions from the Church of England. Catherine of Aragon’s daughter succeeded Edward to the English throne as Mary I & restored Catholic doctrine & practice. *Bloody Mary* Anne Boleyn’s daughter, Elizabeth I, brought religious settlement to England. Elizabeth merged a centralized Episcopal system, which she firmly controlled, with broadly defined Protestant doctrine and traditional Catholic ritual.

11 St. Paul’s Cathedral- Princess Diana was married there
St. Paul’s Cathedral- Princess Diana was married there. Statue of Queen Anne

12 This church was created so the monks in the area would worship quietly away from the locals, but allow the locals a place to worship. Many monarchs are crowned there.

13 Tower of London

14 Built by William the Conqueror in 1078, was a prison and a royal palace, kept lions around for those who tried to escape

15 The yeoman warders live here
The yeoman warders live here. They used to watch over prisoners in the Tower and protect the British crown jewels. They still protect the tower and the royal jewels and act as tour guides of part of the tower. The yeoman showed us the church that Anne and Catherine were buried in after they were executed. We were not to take photos in the church. The yeomen and their families still attend mass at the church. The yeoman are nicknamed beefeaters, but they don't like it. The name was adopted because they were often given beef to eat when many locals couldn't get it.

16 Henry VIII had the white area built for Anne Boleyn when he fell in love with her. She never lived there, but when Henry decided to have her beheaded, she was kept there until her death. That blue area is where Anne Boleyn and Kathryn Howard, both of Henry VIII's 6 wives, were beheaded.


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