2Essential Questions:What steps did “Ivan the Terrible” take to consolidate power for himself?How did Russia contrast with the rest of Europe in the 1600s?What changes did Peter the Great bring to Russia and how were they resisted?
3The First Czar Ivan the Terrible In 1533, Ivan the Terrible becomes king of Russia@ age 3! (Yes, three)Struggles for power with boyars—landowning nobles.Seizes age 16 and crowns himself czar, also spelled tsar, meaning “caesar”. Marries Anastasia (Romanov).
4Why So Terrible? Ivan’s “Good Period” 1547-1560 Ivan’s “Bad Period” Wins great victoriesExpands Russia’s bordersCreates a code of lawsRules justlyIvan’s “Bad Period”In 1560 Ivan’s wife, Anastasia, dies. Ivan accuses the boyars of poisoning her. Paranoia seizes Ivan and he becomes suspicious of the boyars.Ivan abdicates in 1564, but is begged to return. He agrees as long as he is given absolute power.Ivan uses the oprichniki (or personal guard) to persecute the boyars, kill them, and seize their lands
5Rise of the Romanovs Heir to the throne? Ivan gets into an argument with his son (also named Ivan); hits him on the head and kills him.Next in line to the throne is Feodor, who is mentally and physically not fit to lead. He dies childless and leaves no heir.Russia enters the “Time of Troubles”- constant change of leadershipMichael Romanov, grand-nephew of Ivan IV, is chosen to be the next czar. Thus begins the rule of the Romanov Dynasty.
6Peter the Great Comes to Power The Rise of PeterPeter the Great becomes czar in 1696, begins to reform RussiaRussia Contrasts with EuropeCut off geographically from EuropeCulturally isolated, little contact with western EuropeReligious differences widen gap (Russian Orthodox vs. Catholic/Protestant)
7Peter Rules Absolutely Peter Visits the WestIn 1697, Peter (age 24) visits western Europe to learn European ways; known as “the Grand Embassy”Peter’s GoalGoal of westernization—using western Europe as a model for changePeter’s ReformsBrings Orthodox Church under state controlReduces power of great landownersModernizes army by having European officers train soldiers
8Peter Rules Absolutely (continued) Westernizing RussiaIntroduces potatoesStarts Russia’s first newspaperRaises women’s statusAdopts Western fashionAdvances education
9Peter Rules Absolutely (continued) Establishing St. PetersburgPeter wants a seaport that will make travel to West easier.Fights Sweden 21 years to win a port on Baltic SeaIn 1703, begins building new capital calledSt. Petersburg- “the window on Europe”.Building city takes many years, many serfs die in process.By the time of Peter’s death, Russia is force to be reckoned with in Europe
12Church of the Savior on Spilt Blood, St. Petersburg, Russia
13Still the same old problems? Today, Russia still suffers from an identity crisis.Is it an Eastern nation or a Western nation?Example: the Ukraine (a former Russian Republic with a sizable Russian-speaking population.The country is on the verge of civil war because those in the western part of the country wish to improve western ties, whereas those in the east wish to grow closer to Russia