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Absolute Rulers of Russia

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1 Absolute Rulers of Russia
Chapter 21, Section 4

2 Essential Questions: What steps did “Ivan the Terrible” take to consolidate power for himself? How did Russia contrast with the rest of Europe in the 1600s? What changes did Peter the Great bring to Russia and how were they resisted?

3 The First Czar Ivan the Terrible
In 1533, Ivan the Terrible becomes king of Russia @ age 3! (Yes, three) Struggles for power with boyars—landowning nobles. Seizes age 16 and crowns himself czar, also spelled tsar, meaning “caesar”. Marries Anastasia (Romanov).

4 Why So Terrible? Ivan’s “Good Period” 1547-1560 Ivan’s “Bad Period”
Wins great victories Expands Russia’s borders Creates a code of laws Rules justly Ivan’s “Bad Period” In 1560 Ivan’s wife, Anastasia, dies. Ivan accuses the boyars of poisoning her. Paranoia seizes Ivan and he becomes suspicious of the boyars. Ivan abdicates in 1564, but is begged to return. He agrees as long as he is given absolute power. Ivan uses the oprichniki (or personal guard) to persecute the boyars, kill them, and seize their lands

5 Rise of the Romanovs Heir to the throne?
Ivan gets into an argument with his son (also named Ivan); hits him on the head and kills him. Next in line to the throne is Feodor, who is mentally and physically not fit to lead. He dies childless and leaves no heir. Russia enters the “Time of Troubles”- constant change of leadership Michael Romanov, grand-nephew of Ivan IV, is chosen to be the next czar. Thus begins the rule of the Romanov Dynasty.

6 Peter the Great Comes to Power
The Rise of Peter Peter the Great becomes czar in 1696, begins to reform Russia Russia Contrasts with Europe Cut off geographically from Europe Culturally isolated, little contact with western Europe Religious differences widen gap (Russian Orthodox vs. Catholic/Protestant)

7 Peter Rules Absolutely
Peter Visits the West In 1697, Peter (age 24) visits western Europe to learn European ways; known as “the Grand Embassy” Peter’s Goal Goal of westernization—using western Europe as a model for change Peter’s Reforms Brings Orthodox Church under state control Reduces power of great landowners Modernizes army by having European officers train soldiers

8 Peter Rules Absolutely (continued)
Westernizing Russia Introduces potatoes Starts Russia’s first newspaper Raises women’s status Adopts Western fashion Advances education

9 Peter Rules Absolutely (continued)
Establishing St. Petersburg Peter wants a seaport that will make travel to West easier. Fights Sweden 21 years to win a port on Baltic Sea In 1703, begins building new capital called St. Petersburg- “the window on Europe”. Building city takes many years, many serfs die in process. By the time of Peter’s death, Russia is force to be reckoned with in Europe

10 “English Embankment,” St. Petersburg, Russia

11 Palace Square, St. Petersburg

12 Church of the Savior on Spilt Blood, St. Petersburg, Russia

13 Still the same old problems?
Today, Russia still suffers from an identity crisis. Is it an Eastern nation or a Western nation? Example: the Ukraine (a former Russian Republic with a sizable Russian-speaking population. The country is on the verge of civil war because those in the western part of the country wish to improve western ties, whereas those in the east wish to grow closer to Russia

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