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Russian Czars Increase Power

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1 Russian Czars Increase Power
Chapter 21, section 4 Page 531

2 Russia

3 Ivan III Ruled Russia 1462-1505 Accomplished many things:
Conquered much of territory around Moscow Began to centralize Russian government laying the foundation for absolute monarchy Liberated Russia from the Mongols

4 Succeeded by son Vasily, ruled for 28 years
Continued his fathers work of adding territory and increased power of central government This trend would continue under his son, Ivan IV

5 Ivan IV Known as Ivan the Terrible
Took throne in 1533, just 3 years old Nobles (known as boyars) fought to control young Ivan At 16, crowned himself czar (meaning Caesar) and was the first Russian to use it officially

6 Ivan’s “Good Period” Married Anastasia, a beautiful girl related to the boyar family, the Romanovs Between : -Ivan won great victories -added lands to Russia -gave Russia a code of laws -ruled justly

7 Ivan’s “Bad Period” Began in 1560 after Anastasia died
Accused boyars of poisoning her, and turned against them Organized a police force to hunt down and kill those Ivan considered as traitors Thousands died, and Ivan would take their land and give them to people who had remained loyal to him 1581 he killed his oldest son during a violent fight, leaving his weak son to rule after Ivan’s death

8 In 1581, Ivan beat his pregnant daughter-in-law for wearing immodest clothing, and this may have caused a miscarriage. His son Ivan, engaged in a heated argument with his father, which resulted in Ivan striking his son in the head with his pointed staff, causing his son's (accidental) death.

9 Painting titled Ivan Killing His Son

10 Time of Troubles His younger son was physically and mentally incapable of ruling and died leaving no heir Russia experienced “Time of Troubles” Boyars struggled for power Heirs of czars die mysteriously

11 The Romanov Dynasty 1613, representatives from Russian cities met to choose the next able leader Choose Michael Romonov, grand-nephew of Anastasia This begins the Romonov dynasty which ruled Russia for 300 years ( )

12 Romanov’s restored order to Russia
Strengthened government by passing law code Put down revolts Paved way for the absolute ruler, Peter the Great

13 Peter the Great Was 6 ft, 8 inches tall
Had a strong sense of humor and enjoyed playing practical jokes He also had a mean temper- he was known to beat his officials with a stick He also signed execution papers for his oldest son to be killed for opposing him, but he died from torture before the execution

14 Russia’s Differences from Europe
When Peter took over, Russia was a land of boyars and serfs Most boyars knew little of western Europe, looked to Constantinople, which was closer, for leadership during Middle Ages, and Mongol rule cut them off from Renaissance and exploration periods Religious differences widened the gap- Russian’s adopted Eastern Orthodox branch of Christianity Geographic barriers isolated Russia- its only seaport was covered with ice most of the year

15 Peter Visits the West Peter was fascinated by modern tools, machines, and the sea Believed Russia’s future depended on a warm-water port and could then compete with western Europe 1697, embarked on a grand embassy, or a long journey to Europe to learn about their customs and techniques

16 Peter insisted on keeping his identity a secret
Wore plain clothes, went to the Netherlands and worked on ships and as a carpenter Slowly, word spread of who he was Visited England and Austria before going home

17 Peter Rules Absolutely
Peter decided Russia would compete with Europe on military and commercial terms Used Europe as a model for change Peter knew many would oppose changes so he increased his powers and became an absolute ruler

18 Peter’s Changes Brought Russian Orthodox church under state control and abolished position of “Head of Church” Reduced power of landowners by recruiting men from low-ranking families, promoted them to positions of authority, and giving them land Hired European officers to modernize army, drilling soldiers with new weapons and training Army was up to 200,000 men- to pay for this, he imposed heavy taxes

19 Westernizing Russia To westernize Russia, Peter:
-introduced potatoes, became a staple of the Russian diet -started Russia’s first newspaper -allowed women to attend social gatherings -ordered nobles to wear western fashions -changed the New Year from Sep. to Jan. -ordered men to shave their beard or pay a big tax

20 Peter actually shaved some boyars and officials himself

21 New western styles Russians were forced to wear

22 New Army

23 Russian Newspaper Russian potatoes

24 New Capitol To promote education and growth, Peter wanted a warm seaport This would also encourage trade and travel with the west Peter fought and beat Sweden to gain a piece of the Baltic coast Called it St. Petersburg and began building on the swampy site- was very difficult

25 Baltic Sea St. Petersburg

26 Army forced serfs to leave home every summer and work at St. Petersburg
25,000 to 100,000 people died from terrible working conditions and diseases Peter ordered many nobles to leave Moscow and live in St. Petersburg, the new capitol

27 St. Petersburg was the first planned city in Russia
Peter insisted the streets be broad, straight and paved with stone and lined with houses Houses had to conform to standard patterns, based on social classes drawn up by official architects

28 Serfs working at St. Petersburg

29 Old capitol and new Capitol

30 Swampland

31 Known as “old St. Petersburg”


33 Statue of Peter in St. Petersburg

34 Peter’s Death Peter had a severe bladder infection, causing doctors to perform a surgery to unblock 4 pounds of urine After months of resting, Peter was anxious to get back to work While inspecting a project along the Finnish Gulf, he noticed some soldiers drowning, and helped rescue them in icy waters This, along with his healing bladder, caused another infection, causing Peter’s death

35 Peter on his deathbed

36 Peter had ruled for 42 years before he died
Under Peter, Russia had become a power to be reckoned with

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