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  What was the Edict of Nantes and who came up with it? What section tells you what the document is about?  A declaration of religious freedom  Henry.

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Presentation on theme: "  What was the Edict of Nantes and who came up with it? What section tells you what the document is about?  A declaration of religious freedom  Henry."— Presentation transcript:

1   What was the Edict of Nantes and who came up with it? What section tells you what the document is about?  A declaration of religious freedom  Henry IV of France Bell Ringer

2   Russian Czars become absolute rulers: - Ivan the Terrible - Peter the Great  Video: Biography of Ivan the Terrible  Westernizing Russia  Video: St. Petersburg Agenda/Objectives

3   Ivan IV – “Ivan the Terrible”  Came to power in 1533, he was only 3 years old.  Struggle for power – Boyars fought to control Ivan.  Boyar - landowning noble.  Ivan – at 16 seized power and named himself czar.  Which means???  Title meant Caesar. Russian Czars Increase Power

4  Ivan the Terrible

5   1547 – 1560: known as Ivan’s good period  - gained land  - ruled justly  1560: Bad period… Dum dum dum dum!  Who died???  Anastasia, his wife Ivan the Terrible

6   Accused Boyars of poisoning his wife.  Police force = hunt down traitors and kill them.  - dressed in black and rode black horses.  Thousands of Boyars died.  Boyar’s land was seized and given to new class of nobles who had to be loyal. Bad Period

7   “In front of your army have I marched – and marched again; and no dishonor have I brought upon you, but only brilliant victories… But to you, O czar, was all this as naught; rather do you show us your intolerable wrath and bitterest hatred, and furthermore, burnings ( a means of torture).  Is he happy or upset?  What class do you think Andrew was a part of?  Was he loyal to Ivan?  What does this say about many of the loyalties of the Boyar? Prince Andrew Kurbsky

8   1581 – Killed his oldest son.  Died 3 years later.  His second weak son was left to rule. Ivan made a terrible mistake….

9   Ivan’s son both physically and mentally weak.  Died without an heir.  What do you think happens now???  Turmoil = “Times of Trouble”  Boyars vs. heirs of czars  Heir of czars kept dying “mysteriously”  Representatives from the major cities chose an heir – Michael Romanov. Rise of the Romanovs

10   Took power in  One of Russia’s greatest reformers. Peter the Great

11   Still a land of Boyars and serfs.  Serfdoms lasted until the mid 1800s.  Most Boyars did not know about Western Europe.  - Mongol rule cut them off from the Renaissance and Age of Explorations.  Geographic barriers.  Religion: Eastern Orthodox Christians.  - Viewed Catholics and protestants as heretics. Russia’s difference from Europe

12   1697 – At age 25, Peter embarked on the “Grand Embassy”.  Goal – Wanted to learn about European customs and industrial techniques.  Brought 200 servants and 55 boyars.  First to travel to the west and be among the “heretics”.  Kept his identity a secret.  - Wore plain clothes and labored as a ship’s carpenter for 4 months.  His identity was not well hidden.  Travelled to England and Austria before going home. Peter Visits the West

13   After trip wanted to compete both economically and militarily.  Westernization : Idea of using Western Europe as a model for change.  Peter saw it as a change to better Russia. Peter rules absolutely

14   Peter increased his power to as an absolute ruler.  Russian Orthodox church under state control. - abolished the patriarch or head of church and formed a group called Holy Synod.  Like Ivan IV, Peter lowered power of land owners.  Recruited low ranking families and gave them land based on loyalty.  Modernized army: hired European officers. - His army would reach 200,000. Imposed heavy taxes. Reforms

15   Introduced potatoes, became a staple of the Russian diet.  Started Russia’s first newspaper and edited the first issue himself.  Raised women’s status by letting them attend social gatherings.  Ordered nobles to give up their traditional clothes for Western fashions. Westernizing Russia

16   1703: End of a 21 year war with Sweden.  Gained land on the Neva river near the Baltic sea.  Named the new capital St. Petersburg after his patron saint.  Building the capital cost around 100,000 lives.  Swampy conditions A new capital

17   Died in  By that time he raised the status of Russia among the European powers.  Now a forced to be reckoned with in Europe. Legacy of Peter

18   Do you think Ivan the Terrible or Peter the Great was more of an absolute Monarch? Explain your answer giving specific examples from notes… Essay/homework

19   List the steps Peter took to reveal himself as the highest authority of Russia. Peter the Great


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