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Chapter The Supervisor as Leader A leader’s job is to make people’s strengths effective and their weaknesses irrelevant. —Peter Drucker 8
Characteristics of a Successful Leader Sense of responsibility Self-confidence High energy level Empathy Internal locus of control Sense of humor McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-2
Leadership Styles Degree of authority retained Authoritarian leadership Democratic leadership Laissez-faire leadership McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-3
Possibilities for Retaining Authority McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-4
Leadership Styles (continued) Task-oriented versus people-oriented: A task-oriented leader focuses on the jobs to be done and the goals to be accomplished. A people-oriented leader is primarily concerned with the well-being of the employees being managed. Most organizations expect that their supervisors can combine some degree of task orientation with some degree of people orientation. McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-5
Leader Attitudes Theory X managers believe employees: Dislike work and responsibility and try to avoid it Must be coerced to perform Have a primary need for security Theory Y managers believe employees: Treat work as a natural activity Will work hard to achieve objectives they are committed to Can learn to seek responsibility and be creative problem solvers Theory Z managers seek to involve employees in making decisions, to consider long-term goals when making plans, and to give employees freedom in carrying out their duties McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-6
Contingency Theories of Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Model Each leader has a preferred leadership style, which may be people oriented or task oriented. Performance depends on three characteristics of the leadership situation: Leader-member relations Task structure The position power of the leader Fiedler recommends that a leader determine whether his or her preferred leadership style fits the situation. If not, the leader should try to change the characteristics of the situation. McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-7
Contingency Theories of Leadership (continued) Hersey-Blanchard theory a.k.a life cycle theory Assumes that the leader’s behavior should adapt to the situation. Leadership style should reflect the maturity of the followers as measured by traits such as ability to work independently. Leaders should adjust the degree of task and relationship behavior in response to the growing maturity of their followers. McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-8
Leadership Style Characteristics of the leader: The manager’s values Level of confidence in employees Personal leaderships strengths Tolerance for ambiguity McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-9
Leadership Style (continued) Characteristics of the subordinates: Need for independence Readiness to assume responsibility Tolerance for ambiguity Interest in the problem to be solved Understanding of and identification with goals Knowledge and experience Expectations McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-10
Leadership Style (continued) Characteristics of the situation: Type of organization Effectiveness of the group The problem or task Time available McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-11
Six Distinctive Leadership Styles 1. Coercive, which demands compliance. 2. Pace-setting, which sets extremely high standards. 3. Coaching, which focuses on developing people. 4. Democratic, which seeks consensus through participation. 5. Affiliative, which creates harmony and emotional bonds. 6. Authoritative, which mobilizes employees with enthusiasm and vision. McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-12
Giving Directions Supervisors can practice leadership by giving directions. The way a supervisor gives directions can influence how willingly and how well employees respond. The most effective way to give instructions is to do so confidently and politely, without apologies. If employees are not complying with a supervisor’s directions, the supervisor can examine whether the directions follow the guidelines (listed on the next slide). McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-13
Checklist for Giving Directions Wording is appropriately specific for the task Wording is clear and unambiguous Employee can restate directions Supervisor verifies progress toward completion Directions do not change after project is assigned Employees know reasons for the directions Supervisor’s tone is confident and polite, not apologetic McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-14
Supervisors’ Self-Images The self-image a supervisor has influences the supervisor’s behavior. Success as a supervisor requires that the supervisor think in terms of how to create a positive team environment. Awareness of their self-concept can help supervisors cultivate positive thoughts. McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-15
Supervisor’s Relationships with Their Employees Supervisors as role models: When employees evaluate the organization, they look at the supervisor’s behavior and use it as a guide for how they should act. Supervisors should follow all the rules and regulations. Supervisors should be ethical and impartial. Developing trust: The most important way to build trust is to engage in fair, predictable behavior. The supervisor should fulfill promises and give employees credit when they do something well. McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-16
Supervisors’ Relationships with Their Managers Expectations Loyalty Cooperation Communication Results Learn about your manager If you are dissatisfied Consider the source of the problem Talk to your manager Hunt for another job McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-17
Supervisors’ Relationships with Their Peers Competition The more you cooperate, the better you will all look. Criticism Do not go looking for things to criticize about your peers or anyone else. If a co-worker must be criticized, go directly to that person and point out the problem before escalating to management. Focus on the problem and its consequences to the organization, not the personalities involved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8-18
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