Slide 14-2 Learning Goals What is leadership and what does it mean for a leader to be “effective”? What traits and characteristics are related to leader emergence and leader effectiveness? What four styles can leaders use to make decisions, and what factors combine to make these styles more effective in a given situation? What two dimensions capture most of the day- to-day leadership behaviors in which leaders engage?
Slide 14-3 Learning Goals, Cont’d How does transformational leadership differ from transactional leadership, and which behaviors set it apart? How does leadership affect job performance and organizational commitment? Can leaders be trained to be more effective?
Slide 14-4 Leadership Leadership How leaders get the power and influence needed to direct others (Chapter 13). How leaders actually use their power and influence in an effective way.
Slide 14-5 Employee-Centered Measures of Leader Effectiveness Table 14-1
Slide 14-13 Time-Driven Model of Leadership The model suggests that the focus should shift away from autocratic, consultative, facilitative, and delegative leaders to autocratic, consultative, facilitative, and delegative situations. The model suggests that seven factors combine to make some decision-making styles more effective in a given situation and other styles less effective.
Slide 14-14 Time-Driven Model of Leadership, Cont’d Decision significance Importance of commitment Leader expertise Likelihood of commitment Shared objectives Employee expertise Teamwork skills
Slide 14-15 The Time-Driven Model of Leadership Figure 14-3
Slide 14-16 Discussion Questions What do leaders do on a day-to-day basis? What behaviors do leaders tend to perform as part of their daily leadership responsibilities?
Slide 14-17 Ohio States Studies Initiating structure Leaders who are high on initiating structure play a more active role in directing group activities and prioritize planning, scheduling, and trying out new ideas. Consideration Initiating structure and consideration were independent concepts, meaning that leaders could be high on both, low on both, or high on one and low on the other.
Slide 14-18 Day-to-Day Behaviors Performed by Leaders Table 14-3
Slide 14-19 Michigan Studies Identified concepts similar to initiating structure and consideration, calling them production-centered (or task-oriented) and employee-centered (or relations-oriented) behaviors. Framed their task-oriented and relations- oriented concepts as two ends of one continuum, implying that leaders couldn’t be high on both dimensions.
Slide 14-20 Life Cycle Theory of Leadership Optimal combination of initiating structure and consideration depends on the readiness of the employees in the work unit. Readiness Readiness varies from R1 (unable and unwilling) to R2 (unable but willing) to R3 (able but unwilling) to R4 (able and willing).
Slide 14-21 Life Cycle Theory of Leadership, Cont’d Telling Selling Participating Delegating
Slide 14-22 The Life Cycle Theory of Leadership Figure 14-4
Slide 14-23 Other Styles of Leadership Transformational leadership Laissez-faire leadership Transactional leadership Passive management-by-exception Active management-by-exception Contingent reward
Slide 14-24 Laissez-Faire, Transactional, and Transformational Leadership Figure 14-5
Slide 14-26 Transformational Rhetoric Among U.S. Presidents Adapted from Table 14-4
Slide 14-27 Why Are Some Leaders More Effective than Others? Figure 14-6
Slide 14-28 How Important is Leadership? Transformational leadership affects the job performance of the employees who report to the leader. Employees with transformational leaders tend to have higher levels of task performance and engage in higher levels of citizenship behaviors. Employees with transformational leaders tend to be more committed to their organization.
Slide 14-29 Effects of Transformational Leadership on Performance and Commitment Figure 14-7
Slide 14-30 Substitutes for Leadership Substitutes for leadership model suggests that certain characteristics of the situation can constrain the influence of the leader, making it more difficult for the leader to influence employee performance. Substitutes Neutralizers
Slide 14-31 Leader Substitutes and Neutralizers Table 14-5
Slide 14-32 Application: Leadership Training Organizations spent $134.39 billion on employee learning and development in 2007, and much of that was devoted to management and supervisory training. Many training programs focus on transformational leadership content, and research suggests that those programs can be effective.
Slide 14-33 Takeaways Leadership is defined as the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement. An “effective leader” improves the performance and well- being of the overall unit. An “effective leader” also cultivates high-quality leader–member exchange relationships on a dyadic basis through role taking and role making processes. Leader emergence has been linked to a number of traits, including conscientiousness, disagreeableness, openness, extraversion, general cognitive ability, energy level, stress tolerance, and self-confidence. Of that set, the last six traits also predict leader effectiveness.
Slide 14-34 Takeaways, Cont’d Leaders can use a number of styles to make decisions. Beginning with high leader control and moving to high follower control, they include autocratic, consultative, facilitative, and delegative styles. According to the time-driven model of leadership, the appropriateness of these styles depends on decision significance, the importance of commitment, leader expertise, the likelihood of commitment, shared objectives, employee expertise, and teamwork skills.
Slide 14-35 Takeaways, Cont’d Most of the day-to-day leadership behaviors that leaders engage in are examples of either initiating structure or consideration. Initiating structure behaviors include initiation, organization, and production sorts of duties. Consideration behaviors include membership, integration, communication, recognition, and representation sorts of duties.
Slide 14-36 Takeaways, Cont’d Transactional leadership emphasizes “carrot-and-stick” approaches to motivating employees, whereas transformational leadership fundamentally changes the way employees view their work. More specifically, transformational leadership inspires employees to commit to a shared vision or goal that provides meaning and challenge to their work. The specific behaviors that underlie transformational leadership include the “Four Is”: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Transformational leadership has a moderate positive relationship with job performance and a strong positive relationship with organizational commitment. It has stronger effects on these outcomes than other leadership behaviors.