2Usefulness of Norm-Referenced Tests Norm-referenced tests are standardized methods for assessing skills or behaviors. They are useful for making statistically accurate comparisons between the performance of a target student and the performances of other students of the same age or grade level. With the results of norm referenced tests, it is possible to determine whether a target student’s performance is typical or atypical, based on national norms.
3Problems with Norm-Referenced Tests Norm-referenced tests are useful in assessing students foreligibility for special education, but they do havesignificant limitations; such as…May not accurately reflect curriculum being taughtHave limited numbers of alternative forms; problems exist with “test wiseness”May not be sensitive to small gains in academic growthProblems of bias exist in selection of items
4Informal AssessmentInformal assessment means using non-standardized methods of diagnosing learning problems and measuring student progress.
5Advantages of Informal Assessment Informal assessment has the following advantagesover norm-referenced testing:Can be more closely related to the curriculumMore sensitive to small gainsLess cumbersome to administer and scoreRelates directly to planning instruction and teachingCan identify specific error patterns
6Comprehensive Assessment= Comprehensive Test Battery May include formal and informal assessments.Possible to take the good parts of each test.
7Types of Informal Assessment criterion-related assessment--an assessment which involves comparing a student’s performance to a given criteria (rather than to a norm group; mastery testing)curriculum-based assessment--tests which use excerpts from the general education curriculum as the subject matter for testingdirect measurement--measuring progress by using the same instructional materials or tasks that are used in the classroomprobes--brief tests used for assessment of mastery of specific skill or sub-skill
8Teacher-Made TestsWhen designing informal instruments research has shown that teachersare prone to make errors that may skew the results.E.g., matching items, followed by completion, essay and true/false.Teachers may write test items using different levels of learning,although, many teachers use items at the knowledge level becausethey are easier to write.Such items require the student merely to recall, recognize, or match the material.Higher order thinking skills are needed to assess a student’s ability tosequence, apply information, analyze, synthesize, infer, or deduct.
9Criterion-Referenced Testing Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) compare theperformance of a student to a given criterion for mastery.Criterion-referenced testing can be used to determine theexaminee’s position along the continuum from acquisitionto mastery. To be accurate, criterion-referenced testsmust have “item density,” enough items in each domain tomake sure that the topic is covered adequately. Theadvantages of CRTs include:PracticalFairAssists with measuring educational accountability
10Sources for CRTs Adapt existing norm-referenced instruments Use published criterion-referenced tests (like The Brigance Inventories)Design teacher-made CRTsCurriculum-basedDirect measurement
11Establishing Criterion With published CRTs, the authors provide a criterion formastery on their instrument. When a teacher designs a CRT,the teacher must determine an appropriate mastery criterion.Some tasks require 100% mastery (e.g., math facts) and otherscan tolerate a lower standard like 80 or 90% (e.g., readingcomprehension). Typical criterion for mastery are listedbelow:More than 95% = mastery of objective90% to 95% = instructional level76% to 89% = difficult levelLess than 76% = failure level(See Activity 5.6, p. 165)
12What Does Mastery Mean?If a student is able to reach a mastery level score just once on a particular criterion-referenced instrument, this does not necessarily mean that the student actually has mastered the skills being tested. To establish mastery with some certainty, the student would need to be tested over multiple trials.
13Beyond Mastery: Other Considerations Does passing the test mean that the student is proficient and will maintain the skills?Is the student ready to progress to the next level in the curriculum?Will the student be able to generalize and apply the skills in other contexts?Would the student pass the mastery test if it were given again at a later date?
14Brigance InventoriesThe Brigance is standardized assessment system thatprovides criterion-related assessment of basic academicskills. There are three age levels of Brigance Inventories.Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development (birth to age 7)Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Basic Skills (elementary-aged students)Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Skills (intermediate and secondary students)
15Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development The Brigance Inventory of Early Development, Revised (IED) is acriterion-referenced scale for young children. It contains ten skillclusters:Pre-ambulatory motorGross motorFine motorSelf-helpSpeech and languageGeneral knowledge and comprehensionReadinessBasic readingManuscript writingBasic math.The IED is designed for teachers to identify present levels ofperformance and measure progress and as an instructional guide withwritten objective for developing intervention programs.
16Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Basic Skills Author: Albert Brigance (1991) Publisher: Curriculum Associates Description of Test: The test is presented in a plastic ring binder that is designed to be laid open and placed between the examiner and the student. A separate student booklet provided for the student’s answers is designed so that the skills range from easy to difficult; thus, the teacher can quickly ascertain the skills level the student has achieved. Administration Time: Specific time limits are listed on many tests; others are untimed. Age/Grade Levels: Grades K through 9. It is also used for academic assessment of older students who are functioning below sixth-grade academic levels. Subtest Information: There are four subtests including 143 pencil and-paper or oral-response tests: readiness, reading, language arts, and mathematics
17Brigance Comprehensive Diagnostic Inventory of Basic Skills-Revised (CIBS-R) The CIBS-R is a criterion-referenced inventory designed for use with elementary and middle school students. The inventory includes subtests in the following domains: readiness, reading (word recognition, passage reading, word analysis, vocabulary), language arts (handwriting, grammar mechanics, spelling, and reference skills), and math (grade level math, numbers, operations, and measurement). For each area, several subskills are assessed. For each of the items assessed within a subskill, objectives are included. If a student fails to show mastery of a particular subskill, the objective for that subskill can be used for educational planning. Some of the tests on the CIBS-R have been normed and results can be expressed as standard scores, percentile ranks, and grade equivalents. A computer program, the CIBS-R Standardized Scoring Conversion Software, is available to assist in the scoring.
18Brigance Inventory of Essential Skills The criterion-referenced individually administered Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Skills covers academic skill areas and life skills. The former includes reading/language arts, math, and study skills. Life skill subtests include food and clothing, money and finance, travel and transportation, and communication and telephone skills. The Inventory of Essential Skills also includes rating scales for measuring health and attitude, responsibility and self-discipline, job interview preparation, communication, and auto safety. Inventory materials include a student record book that records competency levels and defines instructional objectives and a class record book that provides a matrix of skills assessed, skills mastered, and objectives for a group of up to 15 students. The inventory is widely used to assess secondary level students and adult learners with special needs.
19Strengths of the Brigance The Brigance is considered one of the most comprehensivecriterion-referenced instruments. It is also viewed as being wellsuited to determining mastery of very specific learning objectives.The test manual states that results of the Brigance should beconsidered in conjunction with the student’s classroomperformance, classroom observations, and scrutiny of actualcurriculum goals. The specific strengths of the Brigance include:Helps to determine what a student has or has not learnedContains suggestions for specific instructional objectivesRequires no testing expertiseCan help with referral decisions
20Curriculum-Based Assessment Curriculum-based assessment (CBA) means using materials and tasks from the general curriculum to diagnose learning problems or to measure student progress. Curriculum-based assessments are usually given at the end of an instructional period (summative). CBA assesses mastery of specific content or skill taught during an academic period. Students results are compared against a standard of mastery (e.g., student must pass with 80% of items correct).
21What Is Curriculum-Based Measurement? Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) is the method of monitoring student progress through direct, continuous assessment of basic skills. CBM is used to assess skills such as reading fluency, comprehension, spelling, mathematics, and written expression. Early literacy skills (phonics and phonological awareness) are similar measures and are downward extensions of CBM.
22CBM Is Formative Assessment With curriculum-based assessment, the student is measured fromthe beginning of instruction against the ultimate goal for thestudent’s learning. For example, a child in third grade would bemeasured against a year-end goal in reading (e.g., beginning fourthgrade), even though at the beginning of the year, the child would notbe expected to have mastered the goal. Throughout the school year,the student would be measured against the year-end goal to see if thestudent is making reasonable progress. Measuring progress duringinstruction is called formative assessment. Formative assessmentallows the teacher to make changes in instruction based upon thestudent’s academic performance. Thus, the teacher is able to makequick adjustments so the student does not “get stuck” and continuesto make progress toward the ultimate learning goal.
23How Valid Is CBM? CBM assessment practices are based on 25 years of scientific research at the University of Minnesota andelsewhere (Deno, 1985; Deno, Marston, & Mirkin, 1982;Deno, Marston, Shinn, & Tindal, 1983). These informaltests are time efficient and inexpensive, yet produceaccurate charts of student growth over time.
24What Is a CBM Probe Like?CBM probes last from 1 to 5 minutes depending on the skill being measured and student performance is scored for speed and accuracy to determine proficiency. Because CBM probes are quick to administer and simple to score, they can be given frequently to provide continuous progress data. The results are charted and provide for timely evaluation based on hard data.
25What Is the Content of CBM? As the name implies, CBM materials have historically been derived from individual school curricula. Currently, the CBM field is moving towards standard general curriculum probes to increase standardization and make more accurate comparisons. This is especially helpful when curriculum changes over time.
26Rule of ThumbTeachers can design their own curriculum-based assessments usingclassroom materials. There are some basic guidelines for developingcurriculum-based assessments. Below are some “rules” forassessment design in various academic areas:In reading, students should read aloud from readingmaterials for 1 minute. The number of words readcorrectly per minute (WCPM) constitutes the basic decision-making unit.In spelling, students write words that are dictated at specific intervals (either 5, 7, or 10 seconds) for 2 minutes. The number of correct letter sequences and words spelled correctly are counted.In written expression, students write a story for 3 minutes after viewing a story starter. The number of words written, spelled correctly, and/or correct word sequences are counted.In mathematics, students write answers to computational problems via two minute probes. The numbers of correctly written digits in correct position are counted.
27Baseline and GoalIn order to set up a measurement process, the teacher first determinesbaseline in the skills to be taught. For example, the teacher would dothree probes of a skill or set of skills. The scores for the three probesare averaged or the median score can be selected as the baselinescore. Once the baseline number has been determined, the teachercan estimate the goal (e.g., number of words read correctly, numberof problems solved correctly, number of words spelled correctly) to bereached by the end of the year. The research literature providesguidance for reasonable yearly gains by grade level. For example, asecond grader with a baseline of 55 correctly read words per minutecan be expected to increase oral reading proficiency by approximately38 words by the end of the year. The goal then is 93 correctly readwords per minute.
28Aimline The aimline is the goal line against which progress is measured in curriculum-basedmeasurement. In order to plot the aimline,the teacher would begin at the baselinescore and draw a line to the goal. Tomonitor the instruction, the data are plottedtwice per week. When a student falls belowthe aimline for three consecutive measures,the instruction should be adjusted. Whenthe student excels above the aimline forthree consecutive measures, the instructionshould be made more challenging.
29Content for CBA When a teacher is designing a curriculum-based SCOPESEQUENCEWhen a teacher is designing a curriculum-basedassessment, a good source of information for what toinclude in the assessment is a scope and sequence. Ascope and sequence is a formal listing of the range of skillsand the sequence in which those skills must be learned ina particular academic domain (e.g., reading, writtenexpression, mathematics). To see an example of a Scopeand Sequence, go to the Document Sharing Section of thecourse.
30Task AnalysisSometimes when developing CBA, the test designer will look at a specific skill or sub-skill and try to address it with items that constitute the steps toward completing a task or skill. The name for this process is task analysis. Task analysis simply means analyzing a task by breaking it down into the smallest steps or sub- skills.
31Task Analysis ExampleLet’s assume, for example, that the teacher wants to assess the following skill: Recognizes initial consonant sounds and their association with the consonants in the alphabet A task analysis for recognizing initial consonant sounds might include steps like these: Test single letters (uppercase) for identification in this order– M, T, S, F, D, G, L, H, C, B, N, K, V, W, J, P Test single letters (lowercase) for identification in this order-- m, t, s, f, d, r, g, l, h, c, b, n , k ,v, w, j, p Test matching of upper- and lowercase consonants Test matching most common sounds with consonants Test initial consonant sound identification in CVC wordsImportant in planning and scaffolding instruction
32Error Analysis Error analysis is one of the best ways to determine what types of academic problems astudent may be having. What the teacher does islook for patterns of errors. Once the errorpatterns are discovered, the teacher can thendevelop instructional lessons to correct the errors.(See Activity 5.9,p. 167)
33CBA/CBM SummaryCurriculum-based assessment is a relatively simple process, involving a thorough analysis of the requirements of the curriculum in a particular domain, the development of items to cover the domain, and arrangement of those items in order from the simplest (or easiest) to the most complex (or most difficult). Using CBM allows the teacher to keep track of a student’s progress in the curriculum and to compare one student’s scores to those of other classmates learning the same curriculum.
34Value of Curriculum-Based Assessment Provides more direct feedback to studentsSupports increases in student achievementProvides accurate screening information for eligibilityProvides useful data to determine when students are ready to return to the general education programIs appropriate for assessing medication effectsIs useful in designing instructional programs
35Cautions in Using CBMLimited to measuring discrete skills; can’t measure global skills like creativityMore sensitive to changes in rote learning than in higher level thinking skills
36Issues in Informal Testing Are standards appropriate for student in terms of race, culture and gender?Are test items free from cultural bias?Is the language appropriate for the student?Does the measure bypass the limitations imposed by the disability?Are CBA measures of sufficient technical quality?Does the CBA measure thoroughly cover the skill range?Is the test long enough to provide enough information on the student’s performance?
37Informal Assessment of Reading Decoding, word recognition, fluency, and comprehensionare the broad areas of reading that teachers typicallyassess using informal methods.Decoding--the ability to associate sounds and symbolsWord Recognition—the ability to read words instantly on sightFluency--rate and ease with which a student reads orallyComprehension--ability to derive meaning from written language
38Informal Techniques for Assessing Reading Attitudes Toward Reading DecodingWord RecognitionFluencyComprehensionAttitudes Toward ReadingMatch letters and soundsRead grade level word listsTimed oral reading of lettersAnswering questionsInterviewRead isolated letters, blends, syllables and real wordsRead Dolch WordsTimed oral reading of word listsParaphrasingQuestionnaireSound out nonsense wordsTimed oral reading of phrasesStory retellingStudent historySound out combinations of vowel sounds and patterns, consonant blends, and digraphsTimed oral reading of sentencesClozeRead sentences that contain new wordsTimed oral reading of paragraphsMazeSentence VerificationVocabulary identification
39Informal Reading Inventories Informal reading inventories are informal assessments that usually contain graded word lists for testing word recognition ability and graded reading passages for evaluating oral reading, silent reading, and comprehension. Teachers may select from among many commercially available informal reading inventories or design one of their own. To learn more about commercial informal reading inventories, conduct a search with the ETS Test File at using the keywords reading inventories. On the next slide is a description of one commercial inventory.
40Informal Reading Inventory—5th Ed IRI-5 The Informal Reading Inventory by Burns and Roe introduces reading passages with a sentence that provides a purpose for reading. The student reads the selection orally and then responds to eight comprehension questions read by the examiner The number and percentage of word recognition and comprehension errors made by the student are recorded to determine whether the selection falls at the student’s Independent, Instruction, or Frustration reading level.
41Basic Sight Words aka High Frequency Words aka Dolch List See wiki
42Sample Informal Reading Inventory Motivation Statement: Imagine how you would feel if youwere up to bat and this was your team’s last chance to winthe game! Please read this story.Passage:Whiz! The baseball went right by me, and I struck at the air! “Strikeone!” called the man. I could feel my legs begin to shake! Whiz! Theball went by me again, and I began to feel bad. “Strike two,”screamed the man. I held the bat back because this time I would killthe ball! I would hit it right out of the park! I was so scared that Ibit down on my lip. My knees shook and my hands grew wet. Swish!The ball came right over the plate. Crack! I hit it a good one! Then Iran like the wind. Everyone was yelling for me because I was now abaseball star!
43Comprehension Questions and Possible Answers 1. What is this story about? (Main idea--a baseball game, someone who gets two strikes and finally gets a hit 2. After the second strike, what did the batter plan to do? (Factual--Hit the ball right out of the park) 3. Who is the “man” in this story who called strikes? (Inferential--the umpire) 4. In this story, what was meant when the batter said, “I would kill the ball”? (Terminology--Hit it very hard) 5. Why was the last pitch a good one? (Cause and effect--Because it went right over the plate) 6. What did the batter do after the last pitch? (Case and effect--The batter hit it a good one and ran like the wind.)
44Scoring an IRI Scoring Guide Error Count: Omissions _____ Aided words _____Insertions _____ Repetitions _____Substitutions _____ Reversals _____Scoring GuideWord Recognition Errors Comprehension ErrorsIndependentInstructionalFrustration
45IRI Reading LevelsThe results obtained from IRIs are grade level scores. Typically, informal inventories provide three reading levels: Independent Level, Instructional Level, and Frustration Level. A student’s Independent Level is the level of graded reading materials that can be read easily with a high degree of comprehension and few errors in decoding. At this level, the student reads independently, without instruction or assistance from the teacher. Reading materials at the student’s Instructional Level are somewhat more difficult; this is the level appropriate for reading instruction. Materials at the Frustration Level are too difficult for the student; decoding errors are too frequent and comprehension too poor for instruction to occur.
46Criteria for Reading Levels According to Kirk, Kliebhan, and Lerner (1978), the usual criteria for determining independent, instructional and frustration levels are as shown in the chart below:Independent Reading Level Word Recognition: 98% to 100% Comprehension: 90% to 100% Instructional Reading Level Word Recognition: 95% Comprehension: 75% Frustration Reading Level Word Recognition: less than 90% Comprehension: less than 50%These levels have been criticized for being too stringent. For example, Spache (1972) warned that “if the teacher employs an Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) for his estimate of instructional level, he may be expecting children to read with a very unrealistic degree of oral accuracy.”
47Error Analysis in Reading Error analysis is generally used to investigate decoding mistakes inoral reading. The teacher records deviations from the printed textthat the student makes while reading orally. Several types of errorscan occur when students read connected text. Most systems of erroranalysis include at least four classes of errors:Additions—the reader adds words or parts of words to the textSubstitutions—the reader mispronounces a word or parts of words; this type of error is also called a mispronunciation. (e.g., want for what)Omissions—the reader fails to pronounce words or parts of words. This error occurs when readers skip words, when they hesitate in responding, or when they say the do not know a word.Reversals—The reader changes the order of the words in a phrase or sentence or the order of sounds within a word.
48Miscue AnalysisAn alternate method of error analysis takes into account the qualityof the errors that readers make . This is called miscue analysis.Miscues are analyzed to determine whether they represent a changein meaning from the original test. For example, the substitution ofhold for fight in “fight back the tears” is semantically correct anddoes not alter meaning. However, the substitution of ready for right in“he’ll be all right” does change the sense of the passage.Miscues that produce changes in meaning can be further analyzed.For example, the student’s miscue and the original text can becompared in these three ways:Graphic Similarity: How much do the two words look alike?Sound Similarity: How much do the two words sound alike?Grammatical Function: Is the grammatical function of the reader’s word the same as the grammatical function of the text word?
49Informal Assessment of Mathematics Math is a relatively easy subject to assess using informalmethods. The areas that are usually assessed include:Math factsComputationMath reasoningMath applicationsThe assessment should be combined with both taskanalysis and error analysis to determine specific problemareas. These problem areas should be further assessed byusing probes to determine the specific difficulty.Interviewing the student is also helpful in determininghow the student is reasoning through a problem.
50Methods of Informal Math Assessment Informal Inventories—Informal inventories survey a variety of skills to determine where the student’s strengths and weaknesses lie. Inventories usually have only one or two examples of each type of math problem so further analysis of errors is necessary in more specific probes.Criterion-Referenced Tests--CRTs are used to assess mastery of specific mathematics skills (e.g. multiplication by 9).Error Analysis—Error analysis is a process of looking at the student’s responses to determine why a mistake was made and to see if there is a pattern of repeated types of errors. Error analysis differentiates between systematic computation errors and errors that are random or careless mistakes.Diagnostic Probes—Probes are in-depth assessments of the mastery of a specific skill or sub-skill; typically a probe contains several items focused on the same skill.Clinical Math Interviews—Clinical interviews elicit information about the procedures that students use to arrive at their answers. The student is observed going about the mathematics task and then the student is interviewed to find out the cognitive strategies he or she used to accomplish the task.Portfolio Assessment—A portfolio should contain several examples of the student’s work, including classroom quizzes or assignments, group or individual projects, written math reports or math logs, or artwork related to mathematics. Portfolios may also contain results of standardized tests and informal assessments, student self-assessments, and student interest surveys and questions. Teachers might include checklists of student progress, graphs of results from CBA measures and records of clinical math interviews.
51Example of an Informal Inventory Addition Subtraction Multiplication x 2 x2 x8 x0 x 4 x 4 22 x3 x 4
52Example of Math CRT Criterion for Mastery: 100% (10/10) correct Directions: Round off each number to the nearesthundred (100).721 __________7,879 __________6,834 __________881 __________8502 __________13,782 __________789,332 __________3,055 __________803 __________419 __________
53Math Error AnalysisThe teacher examines the student’s work and observes how the student goes about solving the problems. The teacher can then analyze what types of errors the student is making. Common types of errors include:Incorrect operationIncorrect number factIncorrect algorithmErrors in place valueFailure to follow sequence ofPlacement (working from right to left)Copying or handwriting errorsRandom errors
54Error Analysis Practice For each of the following problems, analyze and describe the types of errors the student is making. Note that within the same box, all of the problems display the same error.ABCD
56Teacher-Made ProbesTeacher-made probes can be used to identify specific problem areas. Mixedprobes are used to locate areas that need further assessment or instruction.In the probe on the following page, each of the following categorieshas nine items:basic addition facts of sums to 9 (first item and then every fourth item),two-digit numbers plus two-digit numbers with no regrouping (seconditem and then every fourth item),two-digit number plus one-digit number with no regrouping (third item and then every fourth item), andbasic addition facts of sums to 18 (fourth item and then every fourth item).When scoring a probe, the student receives one point for every correct digitin the correct place. On this probe, the student can obtain a maximum scoreof 63 correct digits with no errors. After three times, a high score of 40 ormore correct digits per minute with no errors is a reasonable criterion fordiagnostic purposes.
57Example of a Math ProbePatterns: 0-9 facts, 2D +2D, 2D + 1D, and 0-18 facts Number of Correct Digits: ___________
58Error Analysis of Probe Results If the student fails to reach the criterion on a mixed probe, it is important to analyze the responses and locate the errors in the items missed. This analysis provides the teacher with information for further assessment with specific skill probes (such as 0-9 facts). Also, specific skill probes can be used to monitor the daily progress of the student. For what grade level do you think this probe was designed?
59Analysis of Math Observation and Clinical Interview • What previous knowledge did the student bring to this problem?To what extent are the ideas accurate and complete?What strategy did the student employ to solve theproblem?Could the student do the steps of the problem in proper sequence?Were the student’s calculations accurate?
60Diagnostic Questions for Analysis of Problem Solving Agree Disagree ______ ______ Decodes words correctly in story problem ______ ______ Understands the meaning of the situation described in the story problem ______ ______ Identifies the relevant and irrelevant information in the problem ______ ______ Can illustrate the components of the problem ______ ______ Selects the appropriate operation (addition, subtraction, multiplication or division) ______ ______ Writes down the computational problem correctly ______ ______ Remembers number facts correctly ______ ______ Selects the appropriate computational algorithm ______ ______ Estimates the correct answer ______ ______ Determines is answer “makes sense”
61Informal Assessment of Written Expression Written expression includes a complex array of skills which all must be working relatively well in order for the written product to be legible, understandable, and persuasive. Informal probes of writing skills can be done in each of the important areas, including handwriting, writing mechanics, spelling, and composition. On the next slide is a chart showing common methods of informal writing assessment by category.
62Common Informal Methods of Assessing Writing HandwritingWriting MechanicsSpellingCompositionAnalysis of handwriting sample (copy 100 word passage)CRTs of punctuation, capitalization, and grammarPaper and pencil dictation testRating scales and checklists of skillsRating handwriting sample according to grade level template (e.g., shape, slant, spacing, size, smoothness)Informal surveys of punctuation, capitalization, and grammarOral spellingWriting sample analysis (write for 15 minutes on a topic or from a story starter)Inventories and CRTs (e.g., Denver Handwriting Analysis, Brigance)Rating scalesMultiple-choice format(choose the correct spelling)Work samplesWriting samplesSpontaneous writing sampleObservation and clinical interviewInventories of regular words, irregular words and homophonesCriterion-referenced test (usually of grade level words
63Writing Samplethe peopol of englind didn’t the cherch roals. So a groupof pepol got to gether and desided to live. So after a lot ofcomfermising. The king gov them 3 ships and they set sailfor a mew land. They sailed a long ways for a to long tine.Then they saw it land it was North amareca. They landidon plymouth rock. There they started to beld the ferstcoliny. The firs winter wase the hardes a lot peopl didefrom being sick. Afte the winter was over the ingin’sbecom frinds with them and to them how to hunt andgrow food.What kinds of errors do you see in this composition? What is your error analysis?
64Excerpt from a Writing Checklist Agree DisagreeContent______ ______ Does the writing clearly communicate an idea or ideas to the reader?______ ______ Is the content adequately developed?______ ______ Is the content interesting to the potential reader?Vocabulary______ ______ Does the writer select appropriate words to communicate his/her ideas?______ ______ Does the writer use precise/vivid vocabulary?______ ______ Does the writer effectively use verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs?______ ______ Does the vocabulary meet acceptable standards for written English (e.g., isn’t vs. ain’t)?Sentences______ ______ Are the sentences complete (subject and predicate)?______ ______ Are run-on sentences avoided?______ ______ Are exceptionally complex sentences avoided?______ ______ Are the sentences grammatically correct (e.g., word order, subject-verb agreement)?Paragraphs______ ______ Do the sentences in the paragraph relate to one topic?______ ______ Are the sentences organized to reflect the relationships between ideas within the paragraph?______ ______ Does the paragraph include a topical, introductory or transition sentence?
65Sample Writing Interview Questions You’ve finished your composition. Tell me about what you’ve written.When you finished, did you read over what you had written? Did you make any changes?What did you change?Did you have anyone else read your paper? Did you change your paper on the basis of suggestions that someone else made?While you were writing, what did you think about? Did you consider the ideas you were writing about? What should come first, second, and so on? Choosing the exact words to express your meaning? Spelling the words correctly, using correct punctuation, and following all the rules for correct grammar?Do you think that you’ve accomplished your purpose in writing? Why or why not? If not, what do you need to change?Do you think your writing will be understandable for your audience? Is the vocabulary suitable? The tone? If not, what do you need to change?
66Spelling AssessmentA short informal spelling test can be designed by selecting grade level words from a frequency-of-use word list. The student is asked to spell on paper words from each grade list until three words in a grade list are missed. The student’s spelling level can be estimated as that at which two or fewer words are missed.
67Common Types of Spelling Errors Dysphonetic errors. Spelling errors which reflect inaccurate spellings without regard to phonics. Words may have some correct letters, but the letters are placed in bizarre positions, such as ronaeg for orange. Students with this problem read and spell primarily through visualization.Dyseidetic errors. Spelling errors reflect phonic-equivalent errors (e.g., pese for peace, det for debt).What kinds of spelling errors do you see in the essay onSlide #65?
68Summary of Methods of Informal Assessment Criterion Referenced Tests—tests of one skill with a designated level of accuracy in order for the skill to be considered masteredCurriculum-Based Assessments—informal tests using content from the curriculumProbes—tests of specific skills or sub-skills with multiple examples of the same skill to determine strengths and weaknesses of the studentChecklists—lists of academic or behavioral skillsQuestionnaires—questions about a student’s behavior or academic performance that can be answered by the student or by a parent or teacherWork Samples—samples of a student’s classroom workPermanent Products—products made by the student that can be analyzed for academic or behavioral performancePerformance assessment--assessment that requires the student to create an answer or product to demonstrate knowledgeAuthentic assessment--assessment that requires the student to apply knowledge in the real worldPortfolio assessment--evaluating student progress, strengths, and weaknesses using a collection of different measurements and work samples
69Portfolio Contents daily assignments samples of student writing examples of student problem solvinginformal inventories and probescriterion-referenced testsresults of standardized testsstory mapsreading log or reading listmath logvocabulary journalartwork, project papers, photographs, and other productsgroup work, papers, projects, and productsdaily journalwriting ideasletters to pen pals, letters exchanged with teacherout-of-school writing and artworkunit and lesson testsmulti-media productsindependent researchself-evaluationshandwriting samplesmath computation exercises
70Elements of High Quality Assessment Authentic and validEncompass the whole childInvolve repeated observations of patterns of behaviorOngoing and continuousUse a variety of methodsProvide a means for feedbackProvide an opportunity for students, teachers, and parents to discuss progress