Presentation on theme: "Ed-D 420 Inclusion of Exceptional Learners. CAT time Learner-Centered - Learner-centered techniques focus on strategies and approaches to improve learning."— Presentation transcript:
Ed-D 420 Inclusion of Exceptional Learners
CAT time Learner-Centered - Learner-centered techniques focus on strategies and approaches to improve learning. Teacher-Directed - Quality teacher-directed assessments allow the individual instructor freedom to determine content, measurement, use of feedback, and communication of information. Mutually Beneficial - Both teachers and students should benefit from the knowledge gained through classroom assessment techniques. Students can use the feedback to correct or solidify their understanding of course material and instructors can use the feedback to measure how well instructional strategies are working. Formative - Since the goal is to improve learning not measure outcomes, classroom assessment techniques may not be graded or hold very little graded weight. Context-Specific - Effective classroom assessment techniques are uniquely designed to meet the specific needs of each instructor, population, or content area. Ongoing - Assessment should be a continuous cycle of adjusting, measuring, providing feedback, and adjusting again. Rooted in Good Teaching Practice - Classroom assessment techniques are one step in an overall approach to teaching and learning. Classroom assessments provide a means by which assessment can be integrated within the instructional process.
CAT time Minute Paper Quickly assesses the learning gained from a specific instructional sequence by asking students "what was the most important thing you learned during this class?" or "what important question remains unanswered?"
A Manual of Policies, Procedures and Guidelines ~ free handouts H.3 Adjudication: Provincial Examinations When is adjudication recommended? What is the difference between predictable and unpredictable circumstances? H.5 Classification of Educational and Psychological Tests (Levels A-C) What is/are the difference(s) between Level A, B and C tests
Assessment Assessment is a systematic, ongoing data collection process that helps us to make instructional and evaluative decisions. Assessment can be as simple as a teacher's subjective judgment based on observations of student performance, or as complex as a two-hour standardized test. A balanced variety of assessment types and methods should be used in order to get a clear picture of student strengths, needs and progress.
Assessment Assessment variety is necessary because: No single assessment instrument is enough to assess the complexities of what a student has learned and what a student is able to do. No single assessment instrument is enough to validate the quality of the teaching and learning. No single instrument is enough to accurately communicate about student progress.
Assessment Assessment is used for a number of educational purposes including: Screening Identification / Determining Eligibility Program Planning Monitoring Student Progress Program Evaluation It is important that assessment information communicates meaningful and accurate information about student performance to those who need it, and that the methods of assessment match the purpose.
Assessment Results Assessment results should be used to inform instructional planning decisions, they can lead to more appropriate instructional programs being planned for a student and maximize student learning. In general, there are two main types of tests. Norm-referenced tests are used to provide standardized scores that compare students to same age, or same grade peers. Criterion-referenced tests, also described as standards-based or curriculum-based, compare a students performance to an expected content performance mastery level (criterion) by using raw scores or percentages.
Assessment Results The technical quality of tests must also be considered when interpreting results: Are the scores standardized – obtained using the same administration procedures with the same scoring methods to facilitate comparisons? Are the scores reliable – do they measure what they are intended to measure and will the results be similar if the assessment is repeated? Are the scores valid – do they give an accurate representation of the student knowledge or skills being tested?
Some general guidelines for test scores interpretation include: Raw scores on the majority of tests have little meaning on their own, and need a context for interpretation (e.g. What does 20 mean? Is it good?) With some clarification, they can be used to monitor and reflect progress over time. Standard scores can provide a more precise way for describing student performance levels than raw scores by indicating how the score compares to an average score (commonly set at 0, 50 or 100), but are they not intended to measure student growth.
Some general guidelines for test scores interpretation include: Percentiles are a good determination of performance in relation to peers by giving a score ranking out of 100 if compared to same grade or age students. Grade equivalency scores are often misinterpreted and misunderstood and so are rarely recommended for use in explaining student performance. Test scores must always be considered along with other assessment and performance information.
Normal Curve Distribution of Common Standard Scores
Assessment of Special Needs Students ~ video Name six types of accommodations that can be made when testing children with special needs. At the beginning of the clip, the expert mentions the need to use authentic assessment. What is this, and why is it useful with students with special needs? Next Step: Schools are being held more accountable for student progress, which is typically assessed with standardized tests. Many students with special needs are unable to be assessed this way. Schools are still accountable, however, for the progress of these students. What alternate kinds of assessments might be used, and how can a teacher insure that the right skills are being measured?