Presentation on theme: "Standardized Tests: What Are They? Why Use Them?"— Presentation transcript:
1Standardized Tests: What Are They? Why Use Them? Tests administered under identical (as nearly as possible) conditions every time, no matter where or by whom.Why use them?Designed to allow comparison between one child or group of children and another.Often used to measure how well schools are teaching and also how well children are achieving.To demonstrate to taxpayers that their money is indeed educating children.
2Three Major Types of Standardized Tests Norm-Referenced Tests compare the performance of an individual to that of the group on which the test was standardized.Criterion-Referenced Tests measure performance in terms of mastery of particular skills that the child is expected to have learned.Diagnostic Tests are designed to lead to specific instructional plans and may sample many components of an area of achievement.
3Concepts & Terminology of Testing Statistical ConceptsValidityContent ValidityCriterion ValidityConstruct ValidityReliabilityTest-Retest ReliabilityInternal ReliabilityStandard Error of Measurement (SEM)Test ScoresRaw ScoreThe actual number of items correct on a testDerived ScoresPercentile RankStandard Scores (stanine and normal curve equivalent)Grade and Age-equivalent scores
4Concerns About Standardized Tests Risks of misinterpretation and lack of understanding on the part of the public exist with the reporting of any of the standardized test scores.Performance on particular assessments may drive the curriculum (because much of what is done in the classroom is directed toward nudging students to score better on the test).The effect of such testing on minority students.
5The State of the Profession: Local and State Assessments Keep reading and learning about standardized testing in your school system as well as in the nation.Look at test results of high school students also; these students are products of your elementary and middle school programs.Read professional journals, and visit web sites.Ask questions.Learn about the existing state of assessment in your community; then either support it if you agree with it or work for change if you do not.
6Standardized Measures: The Role of the Classroom Teacher To help students prepare (just a few examples):Take the test yourself, and think about the strategies you used to determine the “correct” answers.Observe students as they take tests, and make notes of various strategies you see them using.Invite students to share ways to read and respond to an item.With students, examine each possible response to each item, clarifying why it is or is not the best choice.Replicate the testing conditions, and let students get used to working silently and independently, without asking questions, within time limits.Teach students how to use answer sheets.Stress that the goal is to get right answers, not to be creative or personal, even though this may be quite different from what you emphasize in your classroom.
7Standardized Measures: The Role of the Classroom Teacher Talk to familiesHelp families understand what the scores meanSend lettersInform them of upcoming testsSend a later letter of explanation, with examples of what their child’s score means in terms of his or her performance in this school in this grade on this particular measure.Conduct family conferences
8Family ConferencesIn a conference following the reporting of test results, teachers should try to do all of the following:Give family members a chance to say how they feel about the child’s learning at this point.Share work such as writing, reports, projects, checklists.Give a report and review of the child’s performance on the standardized test and an interpretation of what the score means. Compare the child’s score to his or her previous scores (not to the rest of the class).Encourage questions and welcome concerns.Describe your reaction to the child’s test performance and how it matches (or fails to match) the child’s daily performance in the real world of the classroom.Together with the family, draw up a plan to support continued growth.
9Tests for Measuring Literacy Hundreds of formal tests are available, including:Group-Administered TestsMost common tests used in schoolsHave a variety of purposes: to assess progress in reading, to target students who may have problems, or to provide evidence regarding the success (or failure) of a programNorm referencedIndividually-Administered TestsOften designed to yield diagnostic informationCan be either norm-referenced or criterion-referencedTesting to Accommodate Special PopulationsStudents in exceptional or special educationTitle I studentsSecond-language learners